This document was so powerful, it made my computer disappear through a seizure that involved the CIA, the FBI, local and state law enforcement. (Followed by a decade of forced unpleasant control of my life.)
Cannabis Sativa L. Hemp
Key Words: Nutrition,
Researched by Debby Moore, Founder, Director of Research
Hemp Industries of Kansas
Kansas Environmentalists For Commerce In Hemp
State Education Center
Political Action Headquarters
PO Box 48258
Wichita, KS, 67201
(316) 524 6001
Presented: January, 1995
The US Government has known since 1937 that the Cannabis Sativa L Hemp grown in Kansas was of the non-drug type:
From: Box # 9 Harry J. Anslinger Archives: United States Treasury Department, Washington, Bureau of Narcotics: Report of the Marijuana Investigation, Summer 1937, (In Cooperation with the Department of Agriculture): page 10: "Of the air dried parts of plants 34 responded "positively" in varying degree to the alkaline test. Those which are shown in the table as "positive trace" have been referred to in other sections of this report as "negative" plants. The reason for our designating these very slight traces as "positive" in this phase of the investigation is based upon the fact that we were here looking for tendencies which a process of drying might have upon increasing or decreasing the reactivity of the plant. In the estimation of this laboratory such slight traces would not be sufficient justification for embarking upon criminological procedure and court action. However, for the purpose of scientific investigation they must need be taken into account. These small traces fall within the category of bare indications of a "positive" Beam test."Economic Botany 29: pages 153 163: April-June, 1975: SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN CANNABINOID CONTENT OF KANSAS MARIJUANA: by R. P. Latta & B. J. Eaton: Contribution No. 1309. Depart of Agronomy, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, Submitted for publication December 22, 1972: Riley County Kansas: page 162 "Acknowledgments: The authors appreciate the financial support from the Marijuana Control Steering Committee, Ronald D. Innes, Chairman; and the Governor's Committee on Criminal Administration, Thomas Regan, executive director, and Robert B. Docking, Governor, State of Kansas. We also appreciate assistance from the National Institute of Mental Health who supplied the pure cannabinoid samples; and Dr. C.E. Meloan and the Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, for the use of equipment, which enabled this research." page 158: "The major hallucinogen, delta 9 - THC - occurred in all plant parts and ranged from 0.0001 to 0.06% of plant matter." page 161: "Seasonal variability of cannabinoids in plants was observed in Riley County. Potential cannabinoid content of marijuana appears to be genetically controlled, but the level of expression may be regulated by environmental factors regulating plant growth, and development. Marijuana growing wild in Kansas is low in potency. Midwestern marijuana, descended from varieties cultivated for fiber and cannabinoid level, apparently has remained unchanged by natural selection."
Taxon: Volume 25: August 1976: Practical and Natural Taxonomy for Cannabis: by Earnest Small, Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada: & Arthur Conquist, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY, 09458: page 405 "The present pattern of variation is due in large part to the influence of man. Two widespread classes of plant are discernible: a group of generally northern plants of relatively limited intoxicant potential, influenced particularly by selection for fiber and oil agronomic qualities, and a group of generally southern plants of considerable intoxicant potential, influenced particularly by selection of inebriate qualities." "The "wild" (weedy, naturalized or indigenous) phase is more or less distinguishable from the domesticated (cultivated or spontaneous) phase by means of an adaptive syndrome of fruit characterics." page 419 "Genetic exchanges between cultivated and uncultivated populations occur whenever Cannabis has been cultivated for any considerable length of time. This interaction has been documented with regard to the fibre races and their wild or feral correlatives. Similar interchange between drug races and their wild or feral correlatives also appears to be extensive. On the other hand, such interaction between drug and fiber races is more restricted because of geographical separation, occurring chiefly where both sorts are (or have been) cultivated in proximity. Thus on the basis of the amount of genetic exchange, it seems advisable to make the primary infraspecific grouping in accord with what the plants have been cultivated for, and the secondary one in accord with whether the plants are adapted to growth in the wild or in cultivation. Fortunately, this arrangement is also in harmony with social needs and significance. The distinction between drug and fibre races is much the more important to society." page 22: Bibliography: "Plants of C. sativa var. sativa have been domesticated for fibre and\oil. Fibre cultivars are usually taller than 3 m... Representative Specimens: Kansas: Riley Co., Norton 493 (GH, HS); Whiskey Lake, Geary Co., Gates 98701 (NY): Lawrence, Hor # 229"
Philadelphia City Paper: April 8 - April 16, 1993: page 8: Rethinking Hemp..."The Reagan & Bush administrations used marijuana as a decoy in their drug war in an effort to show the voting public that they were cracking down on drugs. But those claims are misleading. For example, while last year US drug agents eradicated 140 million marijuana plants, 138 million of those plants were wild hemp with little or no drug potential."
Cannabis Sativa L. Hemp Has Grown In Kansas, And Many Other States For Centuries. It's Economic, & Agricultural Benefits Have Recorded Through Out History By United States Department of Agriculture.
Wisconsin's Hemp Industry: May, 1918: Bulletin 293: Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Wisconsin: page 9: "At the present time (1918), hemp is grown for fiber in Kentucky, Wisconsin, California, North Dakota, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, South Dakota page 10: Michigan, Kansas, Iowa, & Illinois."
Confidential "Report to the War Records Project: Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering: July 1, 1943: Subject: Hemp Project: Hemp Investigations Progress: "Plans and arrangement for cultural, adaptation and retting experiments with State Experiment Stations in South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Indiana, and Michigan, were completed as well as similar plans and arrangements for hemp seed production experiments in Kansas & Illinois."
United States Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Statistics 1945: ASGPO: Washington 1945: For sale at the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Offices: page 280 has table 376 which shows that Kansas in 1943 produced 12,000 bushels: For seed 9,000 bushels; home grown 2,000 bushels; Fed to Livestock 2,000 bushels; For farm, household use, 1,000 bushels; Sold 7,000 bushels. In 1944 Kansas Produced 17,000 bushels: Used for seed 9,000 bushels; homegrown 2,000 bushels; fed to livestock 1,000 bushels; for farm & household use; 1,000 bushels; sold 4,000 bushels:
Economy Geography, 22: pages 126 - 132: Illus, map, April 1946: Hemp; A Minor American Fiber Crop page 127 "Hemp Growing Districts: At the height of hemp fiber production, when the Lexington Plain of central Kentucky was the center of hemp growing, the district, together with the Gulf Plain of western Kentucky, accounts for 75 per cent of the American hemp fiber until as late as 1901. Although most of the large towns of the district were hemp markets, Lexington let them all. Less districts included Platte valley of eastern Nebraska, the Missouri valley between St. Joseph and Kansas City, northern Champaign County in the corn belt in eastern Illinois," . Journal of the Arnold Arboretum: (book) Genera of Cannabaceae: by Norton G. Miller: 1970: "The Genera of the Cannabaceae in the Southeastern United States." page 189: Cannabis Sativa, a decided nitrophile that grows well in close association with man and his estates, is widespread in the United States and most frequently collected in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois." page 191: "Hemp agriculture in the US first started on limited basis in New England, in 1632, with seeds brought to the colonies from England. In the 1800's particularly during the midcentruy."
Economic Botany 27: April - June 1973: Haney & Kutscheid: Chemical Constituents of Marijuana "quantitative Variation in the Chemical Constituents of Marijuana from Strands of Naturalized Cannabis Sativa L. in East Central Illinois: page 193: "Cannabis apparently was grown in New England as early as 1629. The species was introduced to Mexico probably much earlier, but there is no evidence that it was spread north. In North America, the plant grows from Quebec to British Columbia in Canada and south throughout United States and Mexico. Based on botanical collections, Haney and Bazzaz concluded that naturalized Cannabis was commonly in the upper midwest where it is established widely. Isolated by persistent populations have been reported east of Indiana, but rarely south of Kentucky and Virginia or west of Kansas & Nebraska...Naturalized populations of hemp were common in the United States by 1832." page 194: "It generally has been accepted that hemp grown in United States yields less drug and, therefore, is an inferior source of marijuana."
"Transforming the Vision Into Reality: How To Make It Happen:"
by Sam Brownback, Kansas Secretary of Agriculture" August 1993: United States Department of Agriculture: Cooperative State Research Service: New Industrial Uses, New Markets for US Crops: "With this type of intense, persistent focus, we can make it happen. We can expand the mission of US agriculture from food and fiber to food and fuel, pharmaceuticals, and feedstocks. We can create additionally economic opportunities for rural areas in processing bio-based products. We can contribute to a better environment. We can reduce our balance of trace deficit by substituting renewable, US produced agricultural commodities for imported petroleum. Ultimately, we can secure a brighter future for our children as well as ourselves."Earth Island Journal, Spring 1993 (Northern Hemisphere): page 19: Earth Island Journal Pioneers Use of Wood-Free Kenaf Paper: "Netherlands, UK Push Tree Free Paper: In 1990 Dutch started hemp on a national program. In 1988 France had 2,500 acres of hemp under cultivation. Bulgaria 2,500 acres, Yugoslavia 2,500 acres, Poland 7,500 acres, Hungary 24,500 acres, Romania, 125,000 acres, former USSR 250,000 acres, Asia's is estimated at 704,900 acres, of hemp being legally grown and commercially harvested in the Northern Hemisphere."
Fixed Oils, Fats, Butters, & Waxes, and the manufacture therefrom of Candles, Soaps, and other products: CR Adler Wright; London: Charles Grifin & Co., Limited: Ester Street, Strand,: 1903 Scientific exploration of the hemp seed: This will be mentioned again later.
Wisconsin's Hemp Industry: May, 1918: Bulletin 293: Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Wisconsin. Page 14: "Hemp fiber it was used in the manufacture of a great number of products, including bagging for cotton bales and for numerous other purposes, sacking of all kinds, binder twines, carpets, rugs, seines, nets, fish lines, sewing thread of all kinds, warp for carpets, and for such fabrics as crash toweling, rough sheeting, and rough clothing. There are certain uses for which hemp is particularly suited and there is no reason why these uses should not be developed. Hemp has great tensile strength and is very resistant too water and to wear, Hence, it is particularly suited for cordage of all kinds, for lines and ropes used in all shipping activities, for canvases used in shipping, and whenever great strength and resistance to water are required, for such threads as shoe thread and sacking thread, where strength is more important than fineness, for sewing coarse wearing apparel, for trimming in the millinery, for fastening buttons, for the more strongly and finely woven types of sacking such as grain sacks, sugar sacks, and the like, for the warp of carpets, for the manufacture of service carpets, rugs, hallway rugs, and all forms of floor covering, and for manufacturing the more coarsely woven products such as toweling, curtains, table cloths, and other textiles."United States Department of Agriculture: Yearbook of Agriculture 1931: United States Government Printing Office Washington: 1931: 1931 - 1st Congress, 3d Session; House Document No. 777 page 285: "carpet warp that ought to last many years, or furniture webbing that should last a lifetime." page 287: "Wrapping twines for heavy packages, Mattress twine for sewing mattresses, Spring twine for tying springs in overstuffed furniture and in box springs, Sacking twine for sewing sacks containing sugar, wool, peanuts, stock reed, or fertilizer, Bailing twine, similar to sacking twine, for sewing burlap covering on bales and packages, Broom twines for sewing brooms, Sewing twine for sewing cheesecloth and shade-grown tobacco, Hop twine for holding up hop vines in hop yards, Ham strings for hanging up hams, Tag twines for shipping tags, Meter cord for tying diaphragms in gas meters, Blocking cord used in blocking men's hats. Webbing yarns which are woven into strong webbing, Belting yarns which are woven into strong belts, Marlines for binding the ends of ropes, cables, and hawsers to keep them from fraying, Hemp packing or coarse yarn used in packing valve pumps, Plumber's Oakum, usually tarred, for packing the joints of pipes, Marine Oakum, also tarred, for caulking the seams of ships and other water craft."
United States Department of Agriculture - Information for Press to be released January 13, 1942: "used in balloons & parachute cloths - airplane wing coverings."
Agriculture in the Americas: Volume II: June 1942: No 6: page 107: "Hemp may prove to be the Cinderella of the fiber world."
Victory: (between Jan & March 1943, can't read date) "Sand Bag Material Would Encircle Globe Eight Times: ...has been purchased by the Supply Division, Corps of Engineers, and will be used for making sandbags, the War Department announced. This purchase is in addition to millions of yards of the same material bought for camouflage purposes."
Magazine: Foreign Commerce Weekly: April 24, 1943: US Export Control as Means of Selective Assistance: page 6 "rope-sole soles, envelopes, toweling, table damask, dress linen, fine handkerchiefs...in the form of the dollar bill" page 34: But linen rag waste, form England, must still find room in hard-pressed merchant vessels...but some in the form of linen rags is required to make paper money stiff, tough, and easy to handle...writing papers, cigarette paper."
M294 - June 7, 1943 WAR PRODUCTION BOARD: "Waste Hemp Rope for Insulating papers, , artificial leather base papers, flower sack papers, tag papers, abrasive papers (sand paper)".
Journal of the Arnold Arboretum: Genera of Cannabaceae, 1970: by Norton Miller: page 190: "The oil is used as a substitute for linseed oil in paints and varnishes and occasionally in soap making. After expressing, the oil, cake may be feed to cattle. In parts of eastern Europe and Russia and Asia, hemp "seeds" are eaten by humans."
Economic Botany 28: July - September, 1974: Emboden: Cannabis - A polytypic Genus: by William A. Emboden, Senior Curator of Botany, Natural History Museum, LA County, LA California: page 309: Undoubtedly Cannabis Sativa found growing in ancient China and from which the Chinese were able to carve heavy wooden canes."
Third Expanded Edition Psychedelics Encyclopedia: by Peter Stafford: Foreward by Andrew Weil M.D. (printed between 1984 & 1988) Chapter 3: Marijuana & Hashish: page 157: "The earliest reference to mind-altering effects of Cannabis appears in the Atharva-Veda of the second millennium B.C., when it was already regarded as one of the five sacred plants of India." page 159: "The earliest known pharmacy book, published in China in the third millennium B.C., recommends hemp for everything from rheumatism to constipation - even absent - mindedness." Page 161: "Archeological remains show that hemp was growing at old Buckenham Mere in England by 400 A.D." page 164: "Whether or not Cannabis was growing in the Americas already, the Spanish seem to have taken their own to Chile in 1545 and then to Peru in 1554 ... Nahuas was a name for marijuana in the New World tribes before the Spaniards arrived. ... In 1606 the British took it to Canada for maritime purposes. In 1611 they brought it to Virginia, in 1632 the Pilgrims to New England. During the War of Independence, as Kentucky and Ohio were being opened up for settlement, vast tracts in both these states were set aside for hemp planting to provide the fiber with which to make clothes, rope, flags, altar cloths, food bags, and fine paper." page 165: With the end of the Civil War...The development of cheap wood...hemp as a source of paper, although it was still used in the manufacture of cigarette papers, money and bibles."
Pulp & Paper Manufacture: Third Edition: Volume: Secondary Fibers & Non-Wood Pulping: The Joint Textbook Committee on the Paper Industry: Copyright 1987: page 1: "The first true paper is credited to Tsai Lun in 105 AD in China, apparently made of textile wastes, old rags, and used fish nets, i.e. the fibers of true hemp." page 19: "Table 13 lists Hemp, true: Use, by type of paper or paperboard: Cigarette paper 50 to 100%, Lightweight printing & writing 20 - 80%, Condenser 20 to 60%, Currency & Security 60 to 80%."Making Paper Without Trees: by Ed Ayres: World Watch: September 1993: page 6: "In China, plant fibers - mainly grain straws, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo - last year accounted for over 80 percent of all paper pulp. Fiber crops like kenaf, hemp,. and sisal are nitrogen-fixers, valuable for crop rotation as well as for their pulp. Hemp is also valued for crop rotation in some regions because it suppresses weeds, reducing the need for chemical herbicides. Kenaf and hemp are notable for their natural whiteness, producing pulps that require less chlorine bleach than wood to produce an equivalent paper. They share with wheat & rice straws the virtue of requiring less energy to process." page 7: "long fibered crops like hemp and kenaf can provide needed reinforcement to chopped-up fibers of recycled paper, precluding the need for virgin wood. ... Brazil has produced hemp for paper since the 1960's. Hemp uses much less energy than wood, serves as a natural herbicide, and is used to restore nitrogen to soil in crop rotation.
Whole Earth Review: Fall 1993: Church of the Living Tree: page 47: "Hemp bast is really strong, and very soft. it's got a feeling of quality; kenaf falls short by comparison. But actually, a hemp\kenaf blend is a better paper than pure hemp. The hemp is too strong."Vegetarian Times: Whatever Happened to Hemp: by Max Friedman: August 1994: page 70: "Hemp is good in building, too. Researchers at the Wood Materials and Engineering Lab at Washington State University in Pullman, Washington have used the plant to develop medium-density fiberboard that is stronger than wood. ...And the hemp seed - used whole or ground like flour, is second only to soybeans in protein content and is high in essential fatty acids."
Scientific Information Cannabis Sativa L Hemp:
Fixed Oils, Fats, Butters, & Waxes, and the manufacture therefrom of Candles, Soaps, and other products: by C.R. Adler Wright: 1903: Charles Grifin & Co. Limited: 62) Refractormeter Reading: Hemp seed - at 22 degrees C. - # of Samples Examined - Deviation + - Highest 37.5 - Lowest 34.0 - Average 35.5 Heat of Combustion: 15 cal. (old oil have very low heats of combustion) 68) The following results were obtained with alcohol of 90%: Hemp seed oil has a Critical Temperature of Solution of 97 degrees C., 85) Hemp has a Melting point of 19 degrees C and a Solidifying point of 15 degrees C. 178) Hemp Seed Oil Contains: ; Linolenic Acid 15%, Isolinelenic Acid 15%, Linolic Acid 70%, ` Oleic Acid 15%, Trilinolin, 482) stearin, & palmitin 271) Oil Cake from Hemp seed contain: Water 10.00%, Fatty Matter 8.26%, Cellulose & Non- Nitrogenous Vegetable Matter 48%, Ash 12.24%, Proteins 21.50%, Nitrogen 3.30%, Percentage Yield of oil: 30 to 35% "Oil cakes made by the Anglo-American system of working are usually more completely expressed, so as to contain distinctly smaller percentages of residual oily matter than cakes prepared without the aid of a molding machine. If, however, the expression be expressed too far, the value of the cake as cattle fodder is greatly dismissed, so that in extreme cases it may be rendered unsaleable." 299) Oil or Fat: Hemp seed oil, Percentage of Unsaponifiable Matter - 0 482-483) Hemp-Seed Oil Recorded Values: Specific Gravity: 0.9280, Iodine Value: 140-5, Free Fatty Acids: 0.45%, Sponification Value: 192.8, Maumene Test: 95-96 degrees C, Solidification Point: -15 to -38 degrees C Fatty Acids: Melting Point: 17 - 21 degrees C, Solidification Point: 14-16 degrees C, Iodine Value: 141 It is soluble in 30 parts of cold alcohol, and 12 parts of boiling alcohol.
Soaps, A Practical Manual of The Manufacture of Domestic Toilet Paper and Other Soaps: George H. Hurst, 1907, United States, D.Van Norstrand Co. New York. page 226: "Oil: Hemp seed: Caustic Potask, KPH 19.3%, Caustic Soda, NAOH: 13.8%"
Vegetable Fibers: Botany, Cultivation, and Utilization: World Crops Books: Edited by Professor Nicholas Polunin: by R.H. Kirby: 1963: page 47: "The oldest use of the hemp plant seems to have been for fiber, and it was not until later that the seeds began to be used for culinary purposes." page 60: Properties and Uses of Hemp: The ultimate fiber cells vary in length from 5 to 55 mm, and have an average length of about 0'022 mm. The thickness of the cell-wall varies, increasing towards the end of the fiber so that the lumes is narrower there. When view under the microscope the fiber cells are seen to be irregular in shape, being flattened at some points along their length but cylindrical at others. There are striations on the surface of the fibre but no nodes. The ultimate fiber's have forked ends. ... Hemp has a cellulose content of 67% and contains about 16% of hemicelluloses. Hemp has 'Z' twist.
Commonwealth Economic Committee CEC: Vegetable Oils & Oilseeds: A Review of production, trade, utilization & prices relating to groundnuts, cotton seed, linseed, soya beans, coconut & oil palm products, olive oil and other oil seeds & oils: London: Her Majesty's Station Office: 1967: page 190: "Hemp seed oil is used mainly in paints, varnishes, and certain kinds of soap in European countries, but is widely utilized for edible purposes in Asia. It is, however, believed that in recent years increasing quantities of hemp seed have been used in bird feeds, rather than processed for oil." page 192: "Since the cystoliths of Cannabis Sativa are composed of calcium carbornate."The Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis: Proceedings of a Conference organized by The Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence at The Ciba Foundation April 9-10, 1969: Edited by CRB Joyce & SR Curry: Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, London Hospital Medical College. International Standard Book Number 0.7000 14 79.9: First Published 1970: Page 41 "Pratt & Youngken (1941) reported that hemp produced volatile oils comprised of terpenes and sesquiterpenes." page 43: "Finally, there is a good correlation of hemp distribution with alluvial soils along streams. This trend is most apparent in Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, and South Dakota. ... Spread is most rapid in the Midwest on alluvial soils...it shows a tremendous ecological amplitude in this respect and has been collected in nearly every conceivable site from lake shores to cracks in concrete walls and upland pine plantations. Although most of the marijuana used in the US at present results from imported material, as that source is controlled the naturalized variety will probably be used much more. Controlling the collection of a weed that occurs in thousands of vacant lots across the country will be a problem of tremendous magnitude." Chapter 4: page 54: "Conclusion: In dried material expecially if stored for a long time, the amount of cannabidiolic acid decreases as a result of decarboxylation and evidently changes to cannabidol. Cannabidiolic acid is known to have antibiotic activity, which may account for the parallel between the appearance of cannabidiolic acid and that of antibiotic activity traced from the eight week of development."
Chemical & Pharmacological Studies of Cannabis: by Stig Agurell: Faculty of Pharmacy and Jan Drik Lindgren, of the Department of Toxicology, Karolinska Institute Stockholm: 1969: page 190: "Thus, these experiments show that Tetrahydrocannabinol in mainly bound to plasma proteins."
Nature: Volume 232: August 20, 1971: page 579 - 580: Cannabivarin & Tetrahydrocannabivarin, Two New Constituents of Hashish. "The identification and the quantitative determination contribute to a more exact chemical knowledge of the constituents and their biosyntheses and allow a better understanding of the different biological activities."
Economic Botany 27: April-June 1973: Haney & Kutscheid: Chemical Constituents of Marijuana: Quantitative Variation in the Chemical Constituents of Marijuana from Strands of Naturalized Cannabis Sativa L. in East-Central Illinois.: page 202: "nutrients, specifically potassium, phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen." ... Krejci reported a similar response in the production of antibiotic substances in hemp in Czechoslovakia. These substances, which, structurally are very similar to the cannabinoids, were produced in greater abundance on a site of lower fertility by plants that were smaller and less vigorous."
Economic Botany 29: April - June 1975: Seasonal Fluctuations in Cannabinoid Content of Kansas Marijuana: by R.P. Latta & R.J. Eaton: Contribution No. 1309. Depart of Agronomy, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas: page 159: "Plant manganese, plant zinc, plant iron, plant copper."
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences: Volume 64, No. 5, May 1975: Constituents of Cannabis Sativa L XI: Cannabidiol and Cannabichromene in Samples of Known Geographical Origin: page 1084: Isolation of Cannabisativine, an Alkaloid, from Cannabis Sativa L. Root: by Calton E. Turner: "Cannabisativine (new spermidine alkaloid) isolated from roots of Cannabis Sativa: Cannabis Sativa L has several low molecular weight nitrogen - containing substances including choline (1-4), trigonelline (2,3), muscarine (5), pideridine (6), N-(p-hydroxy - B-phenylethyl) - p - hydroxy-trans-cinnamamide (7), nurine (8), L-proline (8), and L-(+) - isoleucine betaine (9)."
Photochemistry, 1975: Volume 14: Pergamon Press: Printed in England: Alkaloids of Cannabis Sativa Leaves: Page 2304: "Key Word Index: Cannabis Sativa: Cannabinaciae, marijuana leaves; alkaloids; 4- B-dimethylaminethyl-phenol; hordenine."
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry: 1976: Volume 19, N9. 4: Drugs Derived from Cannabinoids: Basic Esters of Nitrogen & Carbocyclic Analogs: by Raj K. Razdan, SISA Incorporated, Cambridge 4, MSS: page 461: "Drugs derived from Cannabinoids. 5. Tetrahydrocannabinol and Heterocyclic Analogs Containing Aromatic Side Chains:...They found that the nitrogen analog 4a had analgesic activity ranging between that of codeine and morphine with no physical dependence liability."
Constituents of Cannabis Sativa XXV Isolation of two new DiHydrostilbenes From a Panamanian Variant: Journal of Natural Products: Volume 47: No. 1: May-June 1984: page 446: "Scheme 1: Synthesis of 34, 4' dihydroxy - 5 methoxy - 3' - (3 methylbut - 2 enyl) - dihydrostilbene." page 447: "Scheme 2: Synthesis of 3, 4' dihydroxy - 3' 5, 5' trimethoxy dihdrostilbene." page 448: "Identification of, and isolation of: Cannabistilbene 1, Cannabistibene II:"
Third Expanded Edition Psychedelics Encyclopedia: By Peter Stafford: Forward by Andrew Weil, M.D.: Chapter 3: Marijuana & Hashish: page 179: "Botany: Uniqueness: Cannabis species are exceptional, unique from many viewpoints in biology, chemistry and pharmacology. They are among the oddest manifestations in the plant kingdom, something perhaps tossed off by the Creator as a wild afterthought on the seventh day." page 206: Dr. West conceded that: "The continuing controversy over the question of whether pot is, technically, an "aphrodisiac" was irrelevant to most users. In real life and among real people, the fact is, the word is, the belief is, the exception is, and the result is, that marijuana enhances sexual activity." page 207: "Dr. Ken Kessey, who feels reluctant to recommend any other mental drugs because they have so often been impure, provides the ultimate pot commercial: But good old grass I can recommend. To be just without being mad...to be peaceful without being stupid, to be interested without being compulsive, to be happy without being hysterical...smoke grass." "Inspiration: The core of the matter is that most users of Cannabis find it inspiring in many ways. They claim not only that it can heighten sexual feelings but that it inspires religious feelings, increases creativity, helps them solve problems, helps to get them in touch with themselves and expands the scope of their moods. Rats given a diet of THC have been shown to be capable of learning how to run mazes faster than when they're left unstoned (see E.A. Carlini & C. Kramer, "Effects of Cannabis Sativa (Marijuana) on Maze Performance of the Rat," Psychopharmacologiz, 1965, p. 175).
Nature: Volume 351: June 27, 1991: M. E. West: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica "The fishermen have claimed for many years that their vision at night is much better after taking the run-cannabis extract. University of West Indies laboratory facilities, we prepared a non-psychoactive substance from cannabis, which showed a marked ocular hypotensive effect. This preparation, Canasol, is now used to treat glaucoma, and many patients have reported significant improvement in night vision after taking it. From our findings, some of which are unpublished, it would seem that adrenoreceptors are involved and that they may be located in the ciliary epithelium. The ocular responses can be antogonized by alpha-adrenoreceptor blocking agents, ligation of the ascending cervical (sympathetic) nerve, and retrobulbar anesthesia."
Phytochemistry: Volume 30, No. 9: Pages 3013 to 3016: 1991: Printed in Great Britain: Cannabisin A., An Arylnaphthalene Lignanamide From Fruite of Cannabis Sativa: Iwao Sakakibara: Tsumura Research Institute for Biology & Chemistry: Japan: page 3013: "Introduction: Fruite of Cannabis Sativa have been used as purgatives in China & Japan. Previously, several fatty acids choline, and torigonelline were isolated from this material. We have now isolated a new lignanamide, cannasbisin A, together with a known lignanamide and three amides:" page 3016: "Result & Discussion: Cannabisin A was isolated from aqueous ethanol extract of Cannabis Sativa, together with a feruloyltyramine, and N-p-coumaroyltyramine."
Discover 12: August 1992: "Sex: Stoned Sperm: The active ingredient in Marijuana is a molecule called THC, which binds to a receptor on the surface of brain cells. Mood elevation often ensues, as well as a heightened ability to find interest in very silly things...our distant cousins the spiny sea urchins have THC receptors too - not in their brains, but on their sperm. Echinoderms, the phylum that includes sea urchins, and chordates, the phylum that includes vertebrates like us, are believed to have diverged from a common ancestor some 600 to 800 million years ago. Thus the THC receptor seems to be at least that old - which only makes researchers all the more eager to find out what it does for organisms that don't smoke pot. "It's survived over this enormous time," says Schuel. "Whatever it's doing it must be tremendously important."
Science: Volume 258: December 18, 1992: Pages 1882 & 1884: Pot, Heroine Unlock New Areas for Neuroscience: by Marcia Barina: "William Devane & Raphael Mechoulam of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and their colleagues report the identity and structure of a natural brain molecule that binds the marijuana receptor."..."Both of these findings are really important. They will lead to some very interesting science in the next half-decade," says Michael Brownstein of the National Institute of Mental Health.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA: Volume 90 pages 7656 - 7660: August 1993: Cell Biology: Anandamide, an endogenous cannabimimetic eicosanoid, binds to the cloned human cannabinoid receptor and stimulates receptor-mediated signal transduction: by Christian C. Felder: Laboratory of Cell Biology, and Laboratory of Clinical Science, Section on Analytical Biochemistry, National Institute on Mental Health, Bethesda, MD: "Abstract: (arachidonylethanolamide/adenylate cyclase / phosphosipase A2/calcium/calcium current): Anandamide inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in CHO-HCR cells, but not in CHom5 cells, and this response was blocked with pertussis toxin. N-type calcium channels were inhibited by anandamide and several active congeners in N18 neuroblastoma cells. Anandamide stimulated arachidonic acid and intracellular calcium
Nature September 2, 1993: Volume 365 Issue No. 6441: Peripheral vision: "The cannabinoids can exert a wide range of effects which could be useful clinically, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and immunosuppressive activity. But the better-known psychoactive properties limit clinical applications. So the discovery of a cannabinoid receptor located in peripheral tissue rather than the central nervous system has implications not only for our understanding of the action of cannabinoids, but also suggests potential pharmaceutical uses."
Nature: Volume 364: August 19, 1993: by Plinio Prioreschi: Division of History of Medicine: Department of Pharmacology, Creighton University School of Medicine: page 680: "Ancient use of cannabis: ...Rather it was used for such disparate conditions as empyema, "phthisis", "typhus", leucorrhoea, habitual abortion, "dropsy of the uterus", metrorrhagia and "displacement of the uterus." In all these cases there is no mention of cannabis use for pain. On only three occasions is the relief of pain mentioned and , in these, poppy is used as one ingredient in a mixture with other drugs."
Science News: Volume 143: February 6, 1993 Page 88: Marijuana and the Brain: Scientist discover the brain's own THC: by Kathy A. Fackelmann: "Many scientists speculate that such internal compounds help humans cope with stress and pain. The findings may help neuroscientists figure out how these brain-made substances work at the molecular level." page 89: "The researchers labored for two more years to get enough of the purified compound - a drop of clear, oily fluid - to examine in detail. Using a technique called mass spectrometry, they determined the structure of the substance. Devane, of course, had no trouble coming up with a name, anandamide. Anandamide is derived from arachinodic acid, a 20-carbon carboxylic acid that is the starting point for a cascade of complex biochemical reactions. One branch of that cascade leads to the production of the leukotrienes, key substances in the inflammation process. Another branch leads to substances known as prostaglandins, which play role in mediating pain. Devane believes another, as yet uncharted branch of this cascade leads to anandamide. In smaller doses that occur naturally in the body, anandamide may be involved in the regulation of mood, memory, pain, movement, and other activities, Devane says. ... This observation suggests that a defect in anandamide or its receptor may cause certain diseases characterized by loss of motor control. For example, some scientists speculate that the natural marijuana-like substance may play a role in Huntington's chorea, a progressive hereditary disease that interferes with muscular control. There's no proof that anandamide is connected to Huntington's disease, however Herkenham's preliminary data suggest that people with Huntington's lose lots of THC receptors early in the disease process, even before symptoms start to surface. ... Such evidence suggests that anandamide is involved in appetite control Brownstein says. ... Several decades ago, neuroscientists identified endorphines and enkephalins, opium-like compounds manufactured by the human brain" page 94: "Evans & his co-workers have identified and described the messenger RNA that carries the genetic blueprint for one type of opiate receptor from the DNA of a cell's nucleus to the receptor's production site. ... The messenger RNA for opiate receptors is very rare and difficult to isolate. But once they had the messenger RNA, the team could determine the amino acid that make up the receptor. ...The opite receptor and the THC receptor belong to a family of proteins that do their work via molecules called G-proteins. Evans says such receptors work this way: An opiate or THC like drug binds with the receptor on the outer surface of the cell. Once activated, the receptor acts on G-proteins inside the cell, a process that leads to a cascade of bio-chemical reactions and a feeling of euphoria....Like anandamide, the endorphins and enkephalins play a role in a healthy brain and are probably involved in immune function, motor control, and pain relief, Evans speculates."
Philadelphia City Paper: Monday April 26, 1993: Blunt Question: Is Marijuana Still Hot? page 49: Medicating with Marijuana, by Mary Flannery: Pennsylvania Medical Center: "Marinol Vs Marijuana: Marinol ranges from approximately $3. to $11. per pill wholesale, depending on its strength."
10 Jul 2000 "human thermal plume." detector is funnel-shaped collector above the heads of people who pass through and pause a few seconds, draw the human thermal plume, analyzed in an ion mobility spectrometer, a device measuring electrons, for the presence of explosive molecules. - detect smuggled money, narcotics, chemical or biological warfare agents, nuclear substances like uranium, or other hazardous material - skin flakes could provide samples of human DNA, patent number 6,073,499.