Earth Island Journal: Fall Southern Hemisphere 1992:
Page 20: Oxygen, Hydroxyl and Stratospheric Temperature Levels are Falling:
More Trouble for the Earth's Atmosphere: by Gar Smith:
$150 million project Biosphere II & acetazolamide the drug to fight debilitating effects of oxygen starvation- Biosphere I the Earth: Sept 12: The New Scientists, "Decline and fall of atmospheric oxygen", & Journal, "Are We Running Out of Oxygen" & NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research scientists Ralph Keeling & Stephen Shertz reveal that: "There is less oxygen in the air than there was three years ago and the reduction almost exactly matches the amount of oxygen used by the combustion of fossil fuels over the same period." - 7 billion tons of CO2 a year 57% remains trapped, 43% absorbed by Earth's oceans Britain's Plymouth Marine Laboratory researchers believe that the ability of the seas to trap excess CO2 hinges the existence of a "cool layer" of water on the ocean surface - ' a layer just 1 millimeter thick" - effects of pollution yet unknown Hydroxyl (OX) levels may be falling: OH most important oxidant in the atmosphere. OH primary oxidizing agent for methane and ozone destroying industrial halocarbons (HCFCs, CFCs & HFCs). OH helps break down partially halogenated industrial hydrocarbons like HCFC-22 (Freon). Because it neutralizes so many compounds in the atmosphere. OH is "tropospheric vacuum cleaner.", according to Institute for Energy & Environmental Research (IEER) Reduction of OH results: 3 major greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and methane, and ozone destroying chlorine compounds.: The Stratosphere Is Cooling: cooler stratospheric temperatures accelerate the chemical reactions that destroy chlorine molecules, a report by the World Meteorological Organization The largest global decline is in the upper stratosphere...cooling of the upper stratosphere of -1.2 to 1.7 K per decade for 1970 - 1990 was attributed to ozone and trace gas changes. Since 1979, an additional cooling of -.08K has occurred due to a decrease in the solar flux as part of the solar cycle. Rockets launched from Cape Canaveral & Wallops Island have detected a temperature decrease of -0.35K per year" at 40 - & 45-km (25 & 28 miles) altitudes. Temperatures at 45 km have cooled 3.4 K between 1960 & 1980; between 1940 & 1980 temperatures at 48 km dropped 5 K equivalent to a drop of 9o Fahrenheit. If solar heat is trapped inside the greenhouse i.e.troposphere, where 90% of the atmosphere is found, the heat is no longer radiating back into the stratosphere. The concern is these falling temperatures could accelerate the chemical reactions in the polar stratosphere that have resulted in the alarming and increasing destruction of the Earth's ozone shield.