REFERENCES - Marujuana & Immunity

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Baczynski, W.O. & Zimmerman, A.M. 1983b. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol on the immune system of mice. II. In vitro investigation using cultured mouse splenocytes. Pharmacology Vol. 26 (1): 12-19.

Bradley, S.G.; Munson, A.E.; Dewey, W.L. & Harris, L.S. 1977. Enhanced susceptibility of mice to combinations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and live or killed gram negative bacteria. Infection and Immunity Vo. 17: 325-329.

Cabral, G.A.; Mishkin, E.M.; Marciano-Cabral, F.; Coleman, P.; Harris, L. & Munson, A.E. 1986. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on herpes simplex virus type 2 vaginal infection in the guinea pig. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Vol. 182: 181-186.

Cushman, P. & Khurana, R. 1977. A controlled cycle of tetrahydrocannabinol smoking: T and B cell rosette formation. Life Sciences Vol. 20: 971-980.

Cushman, P.; Khurana, R. & Hashim, G. 1976. Tetrahydrocannabinol: Evidence for reduced rosette formation by normal Tlymphocytges. In: Braude, M.C. & Szara, S. (Eds.). The Pharmacology of Marihuana. New York: Raven Press.

Dual, C.B. & Heath, R.G. 1975. The effect of chronic marihuana usage o the immunological status of rhesus monkeys. Life Sciences Vol. 17: 875.

Freeman, G.L. 1983. Allergic skin test reactivity to marijuana in the Southwest. Western Journal of Medicine Vol. 138 (6): 829-831.

Gupta, S.; Grieco, M.A. & Cushman, P. 1974. Impairment of rosette forming Tlymphocytes in chronic marihuana smokers. New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 291: 874-877.

Hollister, L.W. 1986, Health aspects of cannabis. Pharmacological Rewiews Vol. 38 (1): 1-20.

Kagen, S.L.; Kurup, V.P.; Schule, P.G. & Fink, J.N. 1983. Marijuana smoking and fungal sensitization. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Vol. 71 (4): 389-393.

Kaklanami, E.; Trichopouulos, D.; Koutselinis, A.; Brouja, M. & Karalis, B. 1978. Hashish smoking and T-lymphocytes. Archives of Toxicology Vol 40: 97-101.

Klein, T.W.; Newton, C. & Friedman, H. 1987. Inhibition of natural killer cell function lby m;arijuana components. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Vol. 20 (4): 321-332.

Klein, T.W.; Newton, C.; Widen, R. & Friedman, H. 1985. The effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte mitogen responses. Journal of Immunopharmacology Vol. 7: 451-456. Lau, R.J.; Tubergen, D.G.; Barr, M., Jr.; Domino, E.F.; Benowitz, N. & Jones, R.T. 1976. Phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation in humans receiving delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Science Vol. 192: 805-807.

Lefkowitz, S.S.; Klager, K.; Nemeth, D. & Pruess, M. 1978. Immunosuppression of mice by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology Vol. 19: 101-107.

Levy, J.A. & Heppner, G.H. 1981. Alterations of immune reactivity by haloperidol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Immunopharmacology Vol. 3: 93-109.

Levy, J.A.; Munson, A.E.; Harris, L.S. & Dewey, W.L. 1974. Effect of delta-8- and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the immune response in mice. Pharmacologist Vol. 16: 259.

Lewis, C.R. & Slavin, R.G. 1975. Allergy to marihuana: A clinical and skin-testing study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Vol. 55: 131-132.

Liskow, B.; Liss, J.L. & Parker, C.W. 1971. Allergy to marihuana. Annals of Internal Medicine Vol. 75: 571-573.

Lopea-Cepero, M.; Friedman, M.; Klein, T. & Friedman, H. 1986. Tetrahydrocannabinol-induced suppression of macrophage spreading and phagocyte activity in vitro. Jopurnal of Leukocyte Biology Vol. 39: 679-686.

Loveless, S.E.; Harris, L.S. & Munson, A.E. 1981-1982. Hyporesonsiveness to the immunosuppressant effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Immunopharmacology Vol. 3 (3-4): 371-383.

Luthra, Y.K.; Esber, H.J.; Lariviere, D.M. & Rosenkrantz, H. 1980. Assessment of tolerance to immunosuppressive activit;y of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats. Journal of Immunopharmacology Vol. 2: 245.

Maykut, M.O. 1985. Health consequences of acute and chronic marihuana use. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry Vol. 9 (3): 209-238.

Mishkin, E.M. & Cabral, G.A. 1985. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol decreases host resistance to herpes simplex virus type 2 vaginal infection in the B6C3F1 mouse. Journal of General Virology Vol. 66: 2539-2549.

Morahan, P.S.; Klykken, P.C.; Smith, S.H.; Harris, L.S. & Munson, A.E. 1979. Effects of cannabinoids on host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes and herpes simplex virus. Infection and Immunity Vol. 23: 670-674.

Munson, A.E. & Fehr, K.O. 1983. Immunological effect of cannabis. In: ; Fehr, K.O. & Kalant, H. (Eds.) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Munson, A.E.; Levy, J.A.; Harris, L.S. & Dewey, W.L. 1976. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the immune system. In: Braude, M.C. & Szara, S. (Eds.). The Pharmacology of Marihuana. New York: Raven Press.

Nahas, G.G.; Desoize, B.; Amand, J.P.; Hsu, J. & Morishima, A. 1976. Natural cannabinoids: Apparent depression of nucleic acids and protein synthesis in cultured human lymphocytes. In: Braude, M.C. & Szara, S. (Eds.) The Pharmacology of Marihuana. New York: Raven Press.

Nahas, G.G.; Suciv-Foca, N; Amand, J.P. & Morishima, A. 1974. Inhibition of cellular mediated immunity in marihuana smokers. Science Vol. 183: 419-420.

Nahas, G.G.; Zagury, D. & Schwartz, I.W. 1973. Evidence for the possible immunogenecity of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rodents. Nature Vol. 243: 407-408.

Patel, V.; Borysendo, M.; Kumar, M.S.A. & Millard, W.J. 1985. Effects of acute and subchronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on the plasma catecholamine, beta-endorphin, and corticosterone levels and splenic natural killer activity in rats. Proceedings of lthe Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 180: 400-404.

Petersen, B.H.; Grahan, J. & Lemberger, L. 1976. Marihuana, tetrahydrocannabinol, and T-cell function. Life Sciences Vol. 1976: 395-400.

Rachelfsky, G.S. & Opedz, G. 1977. Normal lymphocyte function in the presence of delta-9-THC. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeurics Vol. 21: 44-46.

Rosenkrantz, H. 1976. The immune response and marihuana. In: Nahas, G. (Ed.). Marihuana: Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Cellular Effects. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Rosenkrantz, H.; Miller, A.J. & Esber, H.J. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol suppression of the primary immune response in rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Vol. 1: 119.

Schwartzfarb, L.; Needle, N. & Cavez-Chase, M. 1974. Dose-related inhibition of leukocyte migration by marijuana and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Vol. 14: 35-41.

Silverstein, M.J. & Lessin, P.J. 1974. Normal skin test responses in chronic marijuana users. Science Vol. 186: 740-741.

Smith, S.; Harris, L.; Uwaydah, I. & Munson, A. 1978. Structure-activity relationships of natural and synthetic cannabinoids in suppression of humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol. 207: 165-170.

Watson, E.S.; Murphy, J.D. & Turner, C.E. 1983. Allergenic properties of naturally occurring cannabinoids. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 72: 954-955.

White, S.C.; Brin, S.C. & Janicki, B.W. 1975. Mitogen-induced blastogenic responses of lymphocytes from marihuana smokers. Science Vol. 188: 71-72.

Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Cameron, L.L. & Laurence, H.L. 1977. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol effects on the immune response of mice. Pharmacology Vol. 15: 10-23