FIXED OILS, FATS, BUTTERS, & WAXES, and the manufacture therefrom of Candles, Soaps, and other products; C.R.Alder Wright; London: Charles Grifin & Co, Limited; Exeter Street, Strand, 1903. 62) Refractometer Readings of 244 Samples of Oils Hemp seed - at 22 degrees C. - # of Samples Examined - Deviation + - Highest 37.5 - Lowest 34.0 - Average 35.5 Heat of Combustion @ pure cane sugar (=3959 cals. per gramme). The results obtained were reduced to constant pressure by adding (1/2 p - q) M/T Calories per Gramme, where p represents the number of atoms of hydrogen; q the number of atoms of oxygen in the molecule; M, the molecular weight of the substance; and T, the absolute temperature of the calorimeter. The following corrections were required: For American petroleum, 22 cals; sperm oil, 18 cals.; castor oil and rosin oil, 14 cals.; and all oils consisting essentially of non-hydroxylated gylcerides, 15 cals. In making the combustion the oil was taken up with absorbent fibrour asbestos and ignited directly in the platinum crucible by means of an electrically fused iron wire. The following table gives some of the chief results.........................63) From these results Sherman and Snell concluded that castor oil, boiled linseed, and old oils have very low heats of combustion. The variations in the combustion heats stand in closer relationship to the specific gravity than to the iodine absorption or acidity. For oils of the same kind the product of the heat of combustion multiplied by the specific gravity is practically a constant unaffected by age or exposure. This constant is higher for drying than for non-drying oils. In the case of ordinary oils it was found to vary from 8.80 to 8.63. Castor and boiled linseed oils gave somewhat lower values, and sperm oil and mineral and rosin oils somewhat higher ones. 68) ...........the following results were obtained with alcohol of 90 percent strength - chart shows that Hemp-seed oil has a Critical Temperature of Solution of 97 degrees C, the only two lower readings were Nut oil at 97 degrees and Linseed oil at 70 degrees. The greatest tested was mineral oils at between 135.5 & 140 degrees and Colza oil with 132 to 135 degrees. 69) *In testing of hemp seed, it is listed on this report as Niger seed. (fortunately it is noted that results were too variable and indefinite to be of service in discriminating the value of oils 83) MELTING AND SOLIDIFYING POINTS OF OILS. Chilling baths of this description are more especially of use in the examination of lubricating oils with respect to their congealing temperatures. Recorded Melting and Solidifying Points - The following table, derived in the main from Schadler's Technologies der Fette und Oele, exhibits the average melting solidifying points of many of the more commonly occurring fats and oils: - The Chart shows that Hemp seed has no melting point after solidification. The Solidifying Point when cooled (after Fusion, if Solid) is -27 to -28 degrees C. (In just examaning this report, it seems that actually nothing listed competes with Hemp-seed oil - proof for it being a great motor oil. 85)Fatty acids: Recorded Melting and Solidifying Points of Fatty Acids. - The following table represents the melting and solidifying points of the given mixed fatty acids obtained from various oils and fats, as given by Schadler: - NAME OF OIL, Hemp MELTING POINT 19 degrees C SOLIDIFYING POINT 15 degrees C. 102) RELATIVE DENSITIES OF THE PRINCIPAL OILS, FATS, Many chemists have published the results of their determinations of the specific gravities of genuine oils. In most instances the observed limits of variation in this respect are not very wide, being mainly dependent on the freedom from rancidity and free fatty acids; the degree of refinement (or freedom from mucilaginous nmatter,);' the age of the sample (whether oxygen has been absorbed or not), and so on. In many cases a measurable difference is observable between the density of the oil first expressed, especially when cold drawn, and that the later portions obtained by the aid of heat, and the latter being generally heavier. The following figures are given by Schadler as expressing the average values of the specific gravities at 15 degrees C. of a large neumber of the more commonly occurring vegetable and other oils. from chart: NAME OF OIL: Hemp SPECIFIC GRAVITY AT 15 DEGREES C: 0.9276 176) The subjoined table gives a general summary of the results thus obtained by Bishop. These show that earth-nut oil occupies an intermediate position between the semi-drying oils like cotton-seed oil, and the non-drying oils like colza and olive oil. In the case of the latter a somewhat higher temperature (20 degrees to 30 degrees C.) is advisable, and even then the oxidation is not complete in a short time: 177) The drying qualities of an oil appear to be the more marked the greater the proportion of linolenic and isolinolenic acids present. 178) Hzaura & Grissner calculated the following percentages from the relative proportions in which the hydroxystearic acids were produced on oxidising the liquid fatty acids of linseed, hemp seed, nut, poppy seed, and cotton seed oils, the oilid acids being previously separated by conversion into lead salts and treatment with ether. from chart: NAME OF OIL: Hemp Seed Oil PERCENTAGE OF LINOLENIC ACID 15% PERCENTAGE OF ISOLINOLENIC ACID 15% PERCENTAGE OF LINOLIC ACID 70% - OLEIC ACID 15% 208) The Saponification Value - Koettstorfer's Test: The saponification value, K, of a given substance being known, the mean equivalent weight of the substance is readily calculated by the proportion: K : 56.1 : : 1000 : x = 56,100/K. 209) The value of X thus obtained is generally referred to as the "saponification equivalent" of the body in question: from chart: SUBSTANCE: Trilinolin CHIEF SOURCES: Linseed, hemp, maize, and walnut oils SAPONIFICATION VALUE, or koettstorfer number (Mgrms. of KOE required for Saponification, of 1 grm.) 181,6 SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT: 292.7 210) SAPONIFICATION VALUES OF COMMON OILS AND FATS: the following table gives the values collated by Schadler and by Benedikt from various souces: page 210 & 211 lists different sciencetists results - about the same. 271) Oil cakes made by the Anglo-American system of working are usually more completely expressed, so as to contain distinctly smaller percentages of residual oily matter than cakes prepared without the aid of a moulding machine. If, however, the expression be expressed too far, the value of the cake as cattle fodder is greatly disminished, so that in extreme cases it may be rendered unsaleable. from chart: OIL CAKE FROM: Hemp seed PERCENTAGE OF WATER: 10.00 FATTY MATTER: 8.26 CELLULOSE AND NON- NITROGENOUS VEGETABLE MATTER: 48.00 ASH 12.24 PROTEIDS 21.50 NITROGEN 3.30 298) CHART: Name of Oil: Hemp seed Botanical Name of Plant: Cannabis sativa, L Native Country: Asia Percentage Yield of oil: 30 to 35 %

299) CHART: Oil or Fat: Hemp seed oil, Percentage of Unsaponifiable Matter 0

482 - 483) HEMP-SEED OIL Recorded Values Hemp Seed Oil

Specific Gravity: 0.9280 Saponification Value: 192.8 Iodine Value: 140-5 Maumene Test: 95-96 degrees C Free Fatty Acids: .045 % Solidification Point: -15 to -28 degrees C

Fatty Acids. Melting Point: 17 -21 degrees C Solidification Point: 14-16 degrees C Iodine Value: 141

"The oil is obtained from the seeds of Cannabis sativa. It is used in the manufacture of soft soap and as a drying oil for paints and varnishes. According to Hazura and Grissner, the liquid fatty acids consist of 70 % of linolin, 15% of linolenin and isolinolein, and 15 % of olein. The oil also contains a small quantity of stearin and palmitin. Hemp seed oil is greenish yellow in color when extracted with solvents, and yellowish-brown when obtained by expression. it has b characteristic odour. It is a good drying oil, though it dries less rapidly than linseed oil. It is soluble in 30 parts of cold alcohol, and in 12 parts of boiling alcohol. It is frequently used to adulterate linseed oil, and is also not infrequently present accidentally, owing to the admixture of hempseed with the linseed before expression. When present in any considerable quantity it lowers the iodine value of linseed oil, and would probably also be indicated by the lower yield of insoluble bromides from the oil and free fatty acids. 683) CALCULATION OF QUANTITY OF LEY through page 725 tells how to make soap from hemp seed, and other oils.

SOAPS, A PRACTICAL NAMUAL OF THE MANUFACTURE OF DOMESTIC TOILET PAPER AND OTHER SOAPS: George H. Hurst, F.C.S.: 1907: United States: D.Van Nostrand Co., New York from chart 226) OIL: Hemp seed PERCENT OF CAUSTIC POTASH, KOH 19.3 PERCENT OF CAUSTIC SODA, NaOH: 13.8 In this section are many recipes for making soap of varying kinds. 226 to 239)