The Yearbook of Agriculture 1940 212 & 213) Pg. 212 ...Almost from the first settlement of Kentucky, hemp raising was found well suited to the rich limestone areas (91). Unusually favorable prices from 1826 to 1828 stimulated production, and hemp growing expanded into middle Tennessee and, during the thirties, into the rich 213) valleys of Missouri. The cotton industry had a considerable interest in hemp, since it was manufactured locally into baling cloth, rope and clothing for Negroes. In 1859 Kentucky and Missouri together produced more than three-fourths of the 57,000 tons of hemp raised in the United States. Soil deterioration, scarcity of labor, and Russian competition, however, had already influenced Kentucky to turn more toward wheat growing and cattle raising.
Popular Mechanics, December 1941 - Pinch Hitters for Defense -After twelve years of research, the Ford Motor Company has completed an experimental automobile with a plastic body. "Ford's Car From The Ground".
September 27, 1941 - Interbureau Coordinating Committee on Special Fiber Corps
November 1, 1941 - USDA, Report of the Secretary, 1941 - "Need for hemp increase)
December 16, 1941 - Bureau of Plant Industry Report - 1925 experiments planting 2,000 acres of abaca in Panama. Increased plantings will be made in Panama and Costa Rica. - Lists rubber tree plantings. Kapok from Latin America - used as stuffing in life preservers.
January 13, 1942 USDA - Information for the Press to be released 1 13 42 - Tells about increasing plantings of abaca in Philippines - shows for the first time "Sea Island cotton - has the longest and strongest fibers of any type - used in balloons & parachute cloths - airplane wing coverings." page 3 - Improved soil building plants - parag2) talks of qualities of oil and their drying abilities
Jan 15 1942 :Memo to Secretary of Ag from C.C. Farrington, Acting President of Commodity Credit Corporation, dated 1-15-72 on hemp seed. prohibits the sale of hemp seed, except to Commodity Credit Corporation - in order that a supply of seed may be used in carrying out the production program recommended for 1942. 9,000 bushels in hands of 5 seed dealers, and 2,000 bushels in the hands of growers. $16.00 a bushel commercial - CCC offer $10. and requisition if necessary - Control assumed of hemp seed; C.C.C. given highest preference rating for purchase -- all other persons holding title to 2 or more bushels of hemp seed, required to submit written report to office of Ag Defense Relations. within 10 days.
Victory January 27, 1942 - newspaper 13) "General Preference Order M-82 prohibits the use of domestically produced hemp seed for any purpose except for the growing of hemp fiber or more hemp seed."
Department of Agriculture. Washington DC. Confidential papers to Dr. D. A. Fitsgerald from Frank L. Walton, Chief Textile and Fiber Section. Shows amount of seed US government has in its possession, and lays out the plans for cultivating acreage February 9, 1942.
Victory February 3, 1942 - "Domestic hempseed reserved for planting The War Production Board issued an order January 24, effective immediately, prohibiting the use of domestically produced hempseed for any purpose except for the growing of hemp fiber or for the growing of additional hempseed. Persons holding title to such hempseed are prohibited under the order, M-82, from selling it or delivering it to anyone except the Commodity Credit Corporation of the Department of Agriculture or to persons engaged in the growing of hemp to whom a preference rating of B-1 has been assigned. Other orders not within the B-1 rating may be specifically authorized by the War Production Board."
United States Department of Agriculture February 10, 1942 Press release third paragraph mentions for the first time "henequen" which I suspect is a typo -
Victory - February 10, 1942 - Buying and Selling of sisal and henequen fibers stopped pending formal order. (began cover up of typo "henequen")
Press Release March 12, 1942 - Farmers are asked for Hemp Seed Crop 33 times as big as in 1941. "The Commodity Credit Corporation is contracting to purchase at the price of $8.00 per bushel of 44 pounds - cleaned basis - hemp seed from the 1942 corp......(hennequen mentioned again like American hemp plant.)
Victory April 1, 1942 Article about hemp seed production at its height. Tells previous sources, and present production. very good
Bureau of Plant Industry, Report to War Records Project, April 6, 1942 - Lays plan for 1943 action regarding fibers. Includes hemp as substitute for both the "hard and the soft fibers"
Victory pg 25-26) April 7, 1942 "Hemp seed increase of 3,3000 percent asked to offset loss of imports reprint of April 1, 1942 article, pg 25) mentions increase allocation to mills of excess rayon cut staple. Also "Certain war orders excluded from cordage sales quotas."
Document regarding "HEMPSEED; Increase" April 9, 1942: George, Frank. Hempseed: Increase. Agricultural Situation 26 (4): 9 April 1942
Press Release USDA May 24, 1942 "US Revives Hemp Growing to Meet need created by war. "Note to Editors: The May 24 release date of this story is to give you time to consider illustrating it or telling it entirely with pictures. Eighteen news-type photos are available upon request. Shots run from soldiers guarding hemp seed (it contains a narcotic) in Kentucky warehouse through planting, drying, hackling, and spinning hemp to finished balls of twine. Please don't order unless you definitely plan to use. Whitney Tharin, Chief of Press Service" reads like Hemp for Victory. "Plantings for fiber production in 1942 will be limited to Kentucky, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Illinois.
Letter June 18, 1942 To: The Secretary: From J. B. Hutson, President, Commodity Credit Corporation. Subject: 1942 Agricultural supplies purchase and loan program: Authority to purchase hempseed harvesting canvases and hempseed harvesters.
Agriculture in the Americas Volume II June 1942 No 6 page 103 - 108 Plant Fibers in Wartime "Nature scattered useful fiber plants widely over the face of the globe, (Hard fibers, soft or bast fibers, seed fibers)but mankind through the centuries has done a thorough job of rearranging them so that today production of most of the leaders has become concentrated in the Eastern Hemisphere, particularly in the tropical regions of the south Pacific. The Western Hemisphere, while relatively self-sufficient in food production, has never gone in heavily for the production of fibers in competition with low-cost areas of the East and is on an import basis for all of the principal fibers mentioned except cotton and henequen. page 104 Cotton, of course, is produced abundantly in the Western Hemisphere. the fiber problem of the Americas in the present emergency thus consists essentially in finding ways of maintaining adequate supplies of abaca, sisal, henequen flax, hemp, jute, and kapok or of providing substitutes for them. it is not a problem to be solved off hand, over a cup of coffee, but it is far from insoluble. Current progress and future prospects can perhaps best be appraised by discussing the fibers one at a time. In 1925 the United States Department of Agriculture brought a shipment of abaca plants from the Philippine Islands to the Republic of Panama. These plants were first grown in a quarantine station on Columbus Island and were afterward removed to the mainland near the town of Almirante. Experimental work was carried on both in growing the plants and in cleaning the fiber, and it was determined that the climatic and soil conditions of that region are favorable for abaca, that the plant is resistant to the common diseases of the banana, and that fiber of excellent quality can be produced in Panama. In 1937 and 1939 field plantings were made, and these plantings are now being extended both in Panama and in Costa Rica. Continues to tell more about cultivating Abaca, and why it should not be cultivated in the US "Western Hemisphere". Page 107: Hemp may prove to be the Cinderella of the fiber world. Not many years ago hemp production was a substantial agricultural industry in the United States, particularly in the State of Kentucky, and the fiber was extensively used in rope manufacture. Then abaca was introduced, and the domestic fiber dropped into a secondary position. Today, with imports of abaca and jute curtailed, there is renewed interest in hemp, which can be substituted to some extent for both of them. The name, hemp, is applied to the trade to so many different products that is has become almost a synonym for fiber. There is, however, only one true hemp, a soft or bast fiber produced by the plant Cannabis staiva. It is more nearly like flax than any other commercial fiber, is removed from the plant by retting, breaking and scutching, and may be hackled so as to be as fine as the coarser grades of flax. The principal use in recent years has been for the manufacture of twines and certain types of marine cordage. Hemp tow is used extensively in the manufacture of oakum. The plant requires a temperate climate, annual rainfall of at least 30 or 35 inches, and a fertile loam soil. Like flax, hemp is grown to some extent in practically every temperate zone country, but by far the larger part of the world supply has been produced in the Eastern Hemisphere. Total world production in recent years has ranged from 275,000 to 350,000 tons a year, produced principally in Russia and Italy. The United States has been using only between 1,000 and 1,500 tons a year, about half of it produced domestically and the rest imported, chiefly from Italy. Like the United States, Chile and Argentina produce small quantities of hemp fiber, and all three countries are prepared to produce more. The United States is aiming at doubling its acreage of hemp for fiber in 1942 and has launched a program of increased seed production. In addition to the countries mentioned, there are other regions in the Americas where conditions are favorable for hemp production. Farmers who have had experience with the crop like to grow it, since it clears the land of weeds and improves the physical condition of the soil. Machinery for cleaning the fiber is available of the soil. Machinery for cleaning the fiber is available and markets are well established.
Hand written note; 1942 crop hempseed $12.00\bushel (44 pounds) - price to growers $8.00\bushel (44 pounds) basic price to gov't) To be held until 1943 spring planting season.
Office of Experiment Stations, Report to War Records Project, July 1, 1942 Hand written note " New and better strains of hemp are being developed and the Wisconsin station is aiding in the design and construction of new and enlarged plants for processing it, since the increased acreage's will require enlarged factory capacity to care for the crop.
Bureau of Plant Industry Quarterly Report July 1, 1942 Office of Information No. 6 Subject: Hemp Typed report. Talks about the expanded hemp industry - essentially for research.
Contract for hemp program: Hand written note John A. McIntire Office of the Solicitor; Ext 4272, Rm. 1304 So. Bldg.
August 28, 1942 Cross Reference Number : V A/a (3); Title: Bledsoe to Hutson, hemp priority applications Source: Secretary's Files Nature of material: Correspondence Filed II-B-3
August 28, 1942 To: J. B. Hutson, President Commodity Credit Corporation
From: Samuel B. Bledsoe, Director Subject: Hemp Priority Applications. The Commodity Credit Corporation will, hereafter, be responsible for reviewing and handling applications for priorities and Certificates of Necessity affecting hemp. Recommendations with respect to priorities should be made direct to the War Production Board; those regarding Certificates of Necessity, to the Office of the Under Secretary of War. A letter should accompany each application giving the basis for the recommendation, and a copy of the letter should be sent to the Office for Agricultural War Relations immediately upon transmittal of the application. It would also seem advisable for some person to be designated as a focal point from whom accurate and detailed information may be obtained at any time regarding the status of an application. In consideration of priority applications it will be necessary, of course, to be governed by any program heretofore approved by the Office for Agricultural War Relations, or hereafter approved or promulgated by the Foods Requirements Committee.
US Department of Agriculture, Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Plant Industry, 1942 August 31, 1942 - Hand written note asking for increase in cordage "Hemp for Marine Ropes" - increases of 400,000 acres to this crop in 1943, as compared with about 3,000 acres in 1940.
Confidential letter September 4, 1942 to Hon. B.M. Vincent, House of Representatives from Grover R. Hill, Assistant Secretary: Notes an attached letter from "Moreland, Withers and Company, Owensboro, Kentucky, wherein he requests information regarding the hemp program which is being developed. Mr. Moreland indicates that their tobacco drying plant and equipment is available for war work, and he understands that this plant is suitable for the handling and processing of hemp."
Confidential letter September 4, 1942 to: Hon. Claude R. Wickerd, Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. From: Frank L. Walton, Deputy Chief, Textile, Clothing & Leather Branch References February 9, 1942 letter sent to Dr. FitzGerald - Talks of 1943 expansion - necessity for training program for grading. Agrees that CCC should be sole purchaser of hemp seed. "With respect to the grading program, members of this Branch have already discussed methods of putting it into effect with Mr. Myers and also with Mr. Carl H. Robinson. It is expected that as a result of these discussions, official grading standards will be established, and plans for training and licensing grading standards will be established, and plans for training and licensing graders will be put into effect by your Department. A copy of a letter which has been sent Mr. Carl H. Robinson on this subject is attached herewith.
September 18, 1942 Typed letter Bureau of Plant Industry Quarterly Report on War Activities: Division of Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases: Office of Information No. 6: 1. Subject: Hemp: 2. Project: Hemp Investigations: 5. Progress: Project - University of Kentucky, Lexington - to conduct field and laboratory research in reference to the problem of deterioration of hemp fiber during the retting in the summer months. Extensive field and laboratory experiments have been set up and this investigation is now well under way. research investigator assigned University of Wisconsin, Madison investigations of the fiber content and quality of experimental plots which were earlier set out in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Missouri. ..."Investigation trips were made by the project leaders of this project to study the experimental and commercial plantings of hemp throughout the corn belt States for the purpose of making recommendations for the larger field plantings which are expected in 1943."
Federal Register, 7: 7487 (September 23, 1942) hemp: September 22, 1942 WAR PRODUCTION BOARD M-82 As Amended September 22, 1942: M-38 as amended September 22 PART 1079 - HEMP SEED: *****Contract:***** Restrictions on the use of domestically produced hemp seed. Restrictions on deliveries and assignment of preference ratings.
USDA Information for the Press September 24, 1942 asks War Crops that may substitute for wheat: Flaxseed, dry deans, dry peas, cover crop seed, sugar beets, S&P and Sea Island cotton, hemp, peanuts for oil, soybeans for beans, castor beans, and certain feed grain crops (except corn ...
September 23, 1942 - Confidential letter WAR PRODUCTION BOARD, Washington, D.C. To: Hon. Claude Wickard, Sec of AG, Washington from Frank L. Walton, Deputy Chief: Textile, Clothing and Leather Branch - "The American Hemp Program...has been approved by the Requirements Committee of the War Production Board.
Hand written letter September 30, 1942 By: US Congress House of Representatives. Committee on Appropriations. Hearings before Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives seventy-seventh Congress Second Session on the Second Supplemental National Defense Appropriation Bill for 1943 Washington, USGovernment Printing Office. 1942 - Tells of seed distribution, and increases per acre.
Typed letter: September 30, 1942 To: The Secretary of Agriculture: From J.B. Hutson, President, Commodity Credit Corporation: Subject: Agricultural Supplies Purchase and Loan Program: 1943 Hemp Program Great Letter ***This is three pages long*** vital and will reappear (August 2, 1943)...it is requested that 50,000 acres be planted for hempseed production and 300,000 acres for hemp fiber production in 1943. Because of the marijuana problem, the Bureau of Narcotics has asked that insofar as possible the growing of hemp be confined to the States of Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. It is probable that a project started by a private agency last year in Alabama will be expanded. Production may be undertaken also in Canada, Mexico, and other Latin American countries. The processing of the hemp straw into fiber will require the construction of 71 new mills, and the harvesting of the additional hemp will require approximately 30 hemp harvesters and pick-up binders for each mill. The War Production Board has assigned preference rates of AA-4
Copy of press release 963-43-2 reads much like hemp for victory - tells more of the Commodity Credit Corporation - and that they need more people to group in certain areas.
Confidential letter September 1942 PROGRAM DETERMINATION NO. 70 To: Mr. Ernest C. Kanzler, Direct General for Operations: Subject: American Hemp Program: Makes financial allocations for expansion construction of 71 scutching mills, one every 4,000 acres, in US & Canada with t trucks of three tons each and one tractor truck, International Model H or its equivalent, for each scutching mill. Allocates 9,650 tons of finished steel, 9,750 tons of iron, and 25 tons of copper for each mill.
Confidential Department of Agriculture letter typed October 2, 1942 To: President, Commodity Credit Corporation From: J. Joe Reed Acting Administrator, Agricultural Conservation and adjustment Administration Subject: 1943 Hemp Program. ..."urgent need for announcement of the prices to be paid growers for 1943 hemp and for at least preliminary determination of the areas in which production will be undertaken...To obtain such increases in acreage of hemp as those contemplated for 1943 is a vast undertaking.
Hand written letter October 12, 1942 USDA, Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering, 1942 "Hemp-Processing Machines. acknowledges the research on land, equipment, training of personnel and opening 70 plants for processing in 1943.
Typed: USDA Digest October 12, 1942 FIBER PLANTS FOR ROBE. (Victory, September 22) Under Dept. of Ag. direction, thousands of acres have been planted."
USDA November 12, 1942 Information for the press, release - immediate: "construction of 71 hemp mills in 1943 to be operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation. - 2 - tells about CCC contracts being offered and the Mechanical methods under development for harvesting and processing the fiber.
USDA November 17, 1942 Typed message Information for the Press: 300,000 acres of hemp in 1943 were announced today that - Seed at $11. per bushel and harvesters, reapers and pickers at $4. to $5. per harvested acre will be supplied to growers for CCC...2 copies of this press piece about 1943 cultivation. Yields of hemp straw are expected to average 2 to 4 tons per acre. Purchase prices of straw delivered at mills will be $50. per ton for Class 1 straw, $40, per ton for Class 2, $35. per ton for Class 3 and $30. per ton for Class 4.
Article: Victory 3 (47) November 24, 1942 - Government to buy 300,000 acres of hemp....Hemp straw will be bought by the Government at prices ranging from $30. to $50. per ton, according to grade.
December 1, 1942 USDA Report of the Secretary, 1942: Fiber-Plant Studies. 3 pages
December 7, 1942 : Cross Reference Number: V A 1 a (3) Title: A "Squeeze" On Farmers Source: Greenville (S.C.) News Nature of material: Editorial Filed: IX C 4
Hemp December 16, 1942: Letters to the Editor: New York Wall Street Journal, Begins: ...There have been several in this war but the grandiose scheme for the production of hemp is certainly the price....."If , a very large IF, the authorities ever grow that acreage of hemp and also harvest it, the dew retting will take the knowledge and ability and experience of many men.. It is questionable if there are half a dozen individuals in this country with the ability to do this, and if there are ...Now for the crux of the whole matter. All the work outlined above has to be done by hand. that is the reason that hemp can be produced in quantity where peasant labor is available, or where there are small farmers with large families each growing a small plat of flax or hemp, and where the communal spirit is such that they will all pitch in and help each other"...(Tells of how much work is truly involved, is factual)...(Ends) Hand labor, inadequate machinery, little or no practical knowledge of the business is going to cost the American taxpayer many millions of dollars very shortly. You state the hangman preferred hemp for his rope, maybe he still does. Signed: CANNABIS SATIVA - NEW YORK CITY
December 19, 1942 Typed CONFIDENTIAL letter to: H.E. Blesi, President, Minnesota Canners Association, Fairmont, Minnesota From E. J. Overby, Assistant to the Secretary of Agriculture. protests location of hemp plants in towns where vegetable canning plants are located.
December 23, 1942 Typed letter to Mr. Harry Slattery, Administrator, Rural Electrification Administration, St. Louis, MO: ; From Grover Hill, Assistant Secretary Note: Originated in AAA (Economics & Research Section, NCD) 12 8 42...request that REA be given an opportunity to assist in the over-all planning of the program for constructing and operating hemp mills in 1943. The Commodity Credit Corporation is at present selecting suggested sites for mills in areas recommended by the State USDA War Boards. Actual negotiations for purchase of the sites will be carried on by representatives of the Defense Plant Corporation. Most of the plants will be located in the outskirts of towns because of the large amount of space required for stack yards and the dust which comes from handling the hemp straw. The woody part of the hemp straw known as hurds is used for fuel in the plants, and most of the operations use steam power. Electricity will be used only for lights and a few small motors. Mr. S.H. McCrory, Director of the Hemp Division, Commodity Credit Corporation, discussed this program with one of your representatives at Chicago recently. A list of mill sites will be sent you as rapidly as they are determined.
Confidential letter December 31, 1942 from: USDA : Rural Electrification Administration, St. Louis Harry Slattery, Administrator: To: Mr. Grover B. Hill, Assistant Secretary, Dept of Agric. Washington, D.C. Subject USDA Hemp Mill Program. talks about proposals for electric power at hemp sites...From REA State War Board representatives we are receiving information regarding the selection of the sites for these mills. As soon as sufficient information is assembled we shall prepare proposals for electric power and shall present these proposals to our cooperatives for their submission to the reviewing agency. I am assuming that Defense Plant Corporation will receive, review and pass these proposals on to the Federal Power Commission which, by the President's directive, is responsible for final approval of power contracts.
Hand written: December 1942: ; Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Progress Report on War Activities, December 1942. (dated December 31, 1942). "Hemp: The Milwaukee office is furnishing a report on hemp production in the Lake States. This study also is developing cost and practice information for use by farmers who are unfamiliar with production of this new-extended commodity. in addition to a mimeographed report covering production in detail, material is being gathered for a flier to be circulated in the five major hemp-producing States. p.8
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY QUARTERLY REPORT (January 1, 1943) 1. Subject: Hemp. 2. Project: Adaptation and location of soil types for hemp production. 3. Origin: This proposal grew out of conferences in this Department indicating the need for careful soil investigations for proposed hemp expansion. (Research Line Project z-1-1-5 approved October 1, 1942.) 4. Background: In order to select land suitable for expanded hemp acreage it is necessary that existing plantings be carefully examined and soil types grouped, in cooperation with State scientists, according to their suitability for this crop. 5. Progress: One man has been working full time and others part time for about two months, and tentative schedules for certain promising areas have already been developed.
January 7, 1943 USDA Information for the Press for Immediate Release: Hempseed Program Announced for 1943 - For the spring 1943 Hemp expansion:
January 12, 1943: Bureau of Plant Industry Quarterly Report on War Activities... 1. Subject: Hemp 2. Project: Hemp Investigations 3. Progress...The subject matter for an educational hemp program movie has been supplied, and the movie was completed during the quarter with the assistance of our field specialists who selected the scenes to illustrate the subject matter...
Hand written letter January 19, 1943 - Office of Information, Report to War Records Project, Film in production entitled "Hemp for Victory." Agricultural Exhibit Service produced window display on "Hemp Production."
Hand written letter: Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Progress Report on War Activities, January 1943. (dated Jan. 30, 1943) "Hemp: A study of hemp production for fiber in Wisconsin has been completed and a brief report will be published in an early issue of "The ...
Unknown article - probably Victory publication: "SAND BAG MATERIAL WOULD ENCIRCLE GLOVE EIGHT TIMES: Sufficient burlap and Osnabury to go more than eight times around the world has been purchased by the Supply Division, Corps of Engineers, and will be used for making sandbags, the War Department announced. This purchase is in addition to millions of yards of the same material bought for camouflage purposes."
Charles: AGRI 4026: OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE: For Immediate Release: Monday, March 8, 1943...Tells how many acres are to be planted - page 2 lists where the mills, city & counties, will be build
Charles Ag 3367 4026: Office of War Information: Department of Agriculture NB 662: CORRECTION In a release on Monday, March 8, 1943, on the progress of the hemp production program there was an error in the next to the last line of the first paragraph on page 2. The release should read "mill fiber", not "this fiber".
Hand written letter: Hemp March 17, 1943: Baer, Frank L. "Fiber and cordage developments as viewed from the nation's capital," Cord Age 39 (3) : 5-6, 8. March 1943. "War Hemp Industries, Inc., the newly-created management unit which will operate the mills, was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware early in February. Fred E. Butcher, of Danville, Ill., an engineer previously associated with agricultural projects, is the president of WHI. William A. Miller, of the International Harvester Company, is the treasurer, and officials will be announced later. "The WHI unit is not a government agency. It was created intentionally outside the framework of the US Government to facilitate the speedy operation of the mills. It is authorized to hire its own personnel who will have no connection with the U.S. Government Civil Service. "WHI maintains an office located at 208 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Ill. "It was set up by and with the consent of the Commodity Credit Corporation and the Defense Plant Corporation (an RFC subsidiary under the Department of Commerce) which supplied the money for the building of the hemp mills. "The government activity phase of the American hemp program comes under Samuel H. McCrory, Director of the Hemp Divisions, Commodity Credit Corporation, Department of Agriculture. He is the man who directed the development of the agricultural end of production, the phase covering seed growth, accumulation, and distribution; acreage for fiber; farmer sign-up; ect., and he will follow the whole program through to the harvesting of the expanding hemp crop in the six states. "With CCC officials anticipating 75,000 tons of fiber for the 1943 planting, American hemp production assumes the dignity of a separate industry..."p.6.
George--Agr. 3263 OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION Department of AG March 24, 1943 - For Immediate Release...tells of purchasing hemp straw from all the producers.
Hand Written: Hemp March 1943: Hartog, Gerald Den. Robe by the acre. Iowa Agriculturists 44 (8): 6-7, illus. March 1943: A general article on the production of hemp. article telling about Iowa becoming major producer with 60,000 acres and 11 hemp mills, each one handling about 6,000 acres now are under way...
George - Agr. 3263 OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION March 24, 1943: For Immediate Release AG 213: CCC purchases 1942 Hemp crop from Kentucky, ...the quantity available for purchase is estimated at 1,500,000 (million pounds).
Bureau of Plant Industry : Soils and Agricultural Engineering: April 1, 1942 ...Farmer's bulletin No. 1935 entitle "Hemp", was published January 1943, and 42,000 copies out a printing of 60,000 have been already distributed for the information of war hemp producers....No additional straw yields were obtained between plantings of 3, 4, & 5, pecks of seed per acre but the fiber percentage increased and, hence, greater fiber yields were obtained on heavier rates of seeding...
Bureau of Plant Industry: Soils, and Agricultural Engineering April 1, 1943 1. Subject: Special Problems in the Design and Construction of Hemp Processing Buildings and Equipment. 2. Project: To act as constants and to assist the Commodity Credit Corporation in perfecting the design and construction of buildings and equipment required for commercial processing of hemp. 3. Origin: The buildings and equipment needed for processing hemp were developed in the B.A.C. & E. but the work was transferred to C.C.C. The Hemp Division of C.C.C. requested that they be helped with special problems regarding the adequacy of certain machines, suitable layouts for equipment, and the design of special features of the structures. 4. Background: On account of the war the sources of supply for long fiber ropes have been shut off and it has been necessary to develop a domestic supply. 5. Progress. This work has been completed and no further work is contemplated
April 1, 1943 Bureau of Plant Industry : Soils and Agricultural Engineering: April 1, 1943: (Typed report) The soils have been grouped in accordance with their suitability for hemp and schedules have been developed for use in making arrangements with individual growers.
Article: Washington Evening Star, April 15, 1943 U.S. Hemp Program Expected to Revive Big Kentucky Industry: Government to Grow 500,000 Tons Annually To Meet Nation's Needs.
Magazine: Foreign Commerce Weekly: April 24, 1943: Page 5) US EXPORT CONTROL AS MEANS OF SELECTIVE ASSISTANCE The United States export control became, during 1942 not only a form of adjustable restriction but also a means of selective assistance to Latin America. While often rejecting individual application for various reasons, on the whole the operations of the United States export central regime appeared to have been directed, with increasing clarity, during the past year or, so, toward ensuring the largest possible provision for the civilian requirements of Latin America and other friendly countries, consistent with the naturally more urgent claims of the United States war program and of the Lend-Lease supplies needed for the belligerent allies...... ESTIMATING LATIN AMERICAN NEEDS THROUGH REQUIREMENTS STUDIES: On the side of the United States, as distinct stringencies developed toward the end of the 1941 for certain products in high demand, recognition grew of the need for going beyond the granting of permission to export, or even of priority ratings to suppliers. In collaboration with the centralized import control agencies of the other American Republics just mentioned, surveys were undertaken of their essential needs for each of a broad range of industrial materials and equipment, as a basis for determining the approximate amounts that might fairly be allocated to them, among the various domestic and foreign claimants for the limited supplies available.....SHORTAGE OF SHIPPING BECOMES THE BASIC LIMITATIONS UPON TRADE.. Page 6) The ABC of the Fiber Situation TODAY - Significant Facts High- Lighted by War Production Board Manila, Sisal, Hemp, jute, flax, and ramie are fighting fibers - long and strong. These members of the hemp or "cordage" family, essential to victory, are tangled in the changing geography of war. Manila is a Jap prisoner. Sisal competes for Caribbean and African shipping space. Hemp, growing in Italy and Hungary, serves the Axis. Jute, an Indian native, is partially cut off by action in the East. Flax is no longer available from France and Belgium. Ramie is trapped in China and the Malay country. NOW UNDER WPB CONTROL But the Armed Forces must have hard working fibers for "rope, rope, and more rope," for ships' buffers, ships' caulking, engine packing, binder twine, bagging, tarpaulins, insulation's, fire hose, and shoe thread. To such essential uses, civilians add taked-for-granted ones - fishing lines, summer rugs, rope-sole soles, household twine, carpet backing, upholstery webbing, heavy paper bags and envelopes, toweling, table damask, dress linen, fine handkerchiefs, Shoulder and civilian alike need flax in the form of the dollar bill. Only small quantities of these fibers can now be used for any but the most necessary civilian goods. Because they are military needs, available cordage fibers are under WPB control. First problem is to make up for the critical manila shortage. ...........................HEMP IN SHORT SUPPLY: Not as strong as manila and sisal, nor as abrasion-resistant, hemp is still a valuable rope fiber suited to the lighter "ratline" uses. A sizable hemp-raising program, in Wisconsin and Kentucky, is expected to compensate, in part, for the loss of Italian and Hungarian fiber. But this country will do well to "grow enough ropes" for war needs. There will be only small quantities of hemp for essential industry, none for such luxuries as the linen-like ecru tablecloths once imported from Italy. Page 34)...Not linen, but cotton, is the great American textile. When this country's commercial life was developing, cotton was in the ascendancy. a young and enterprising people left linen-making, not easily mechanized, to the old world, with its ancient tradition of skill at a difficult and patient trade. In the United States there are virtually no fibers, spindles, looms, or trained labor for the manufacture of luxurious linens. FINE LINENS NOT SHIPPED NOW: Handkerchief linen, dress linen, drapery and upholstery linen, linen table damask must inevitably decrease in availability. Many European countries whose names were formerly stamped on the selvage of beautiful linens, are now occupied - France, Belgium, Austria, Czechoslovakia. The more fortunate linen-making countries - Russia, Ireland, Switzerland - have little labor to spare for nonessentials, and no ship has much space to carry them. But linen rag waste, from England, must still find room in hard-pressed merchant vessels. Flax content has bee reduced, but some in the form of linen rags is required to make paper money stiff, tough, and easy to handle. However, writing papers, popularly known as "Linen," usually are not. Cigarette paper, strong but thin, uses the straw from home-grown seed flax. ...................US EXPORT CONTROL AND RELATED ANNOUNCEMENTS:...The Brazilian Government has requested that the United States not authorize the exportation of certain commodities to Brazil. The basis for the Brazilian request is that the very limited shipping space available must be conserved for supplies and materials necessary to its cooperative war effort and the maintenance of its essential civilian economy. In accordance therewith, and in furtherance of the war effort t of the United Nations, the Office of Exports publishes the following list of articles deemed non-essential by the Government of Brazil and announces that no individual licenses or shipping permits will be issued by the Office of Exports for the shipment of such commodities to Brazil: Canned everything, dried everything (fruits & vegetables), and Ground spices of all variety; canvas shoes; All types of silk, nylon & rayon fibers, Wood manufactures, waste paper, white blank news, waste paper, fly leaf shavings, wrapping paper, tissue & crepe paper, tolit paper, other box board, bristol board, paper board, fiber insulation board, wall board of paper or pulp, blotting paper, writing paper, paper bags, heavy fiber shipping containers, boxes and cartons, envelopes, Page 33: List the products that Brazil allowed to make application for trade- mark registration: Most are of the pharmaceutical nature.
Clip Sheet - U.S. Department of Agriculture No 1296 Release May 2, 1943 HEMP TO ROPE THE AXIS: Sixty farmers of Wolfe County, Kentucky, are on the job again this year raising hemp seed for Uncle Sam. Their first experience with the new crop came last season and in spite of excessive rain and other hindrances they produced about 350 bushels of seed. When war in the Pacific cut off the hemp supply, the USDA asked Kentucky farmers to grow seed for a domestic hemp crop that will supply rope, sacking, and other war materials. Wolfe county farmers signed up to grow 72 acres. They encountered various difficulties. Because of rains considerable hemp was drowned out. No one in wolfe County owned a suitable thresher. Several hemp growers met and discussed the situation. To provide for handling the crop 12 of the farmer growers arranged to buy a $600 tresher cooperatively. They used the tresher on the hemp crop - also to harvest wheat, oats, lespendeza, soybeans and grass seed. They took 350 bushels of hemp seed to Paris, KY., to be recleaned and will plant from this supply. Most of these Wolfe County farmers plan to raise another seed crop in 1943, leaving the growing of the fiber crop to other sections and other states, where soils are better adapted to the fiber crop.
Hand written letter May 20, 1993 from: Baer, Frank L. "Month's Fiber and Cordage News as Viewed from the Nations Capital," Cord Age 39 (5): 5-6, 8. May 1943, Washington DC "The activity accent is on domestic fiber with two important developments standing out on the American scene: 1) Some 14,100 US farmers are now on the last lap of hemp fiber planting in the six hemp states. 2) Cotton, to the extent of 25 per cent, went into all US binder twine production on May 10 ***Lists all the states where contracted hemp growing is taking place***also lists the mills that are well under way construction wise - Second part of the page acknowledges firms and persons who will begin grading and purchasing hemp for the government
M 294 - June 7, 1943 WAR PRODUCTION BOARD: opens up the market to use "Waste Manila Rope" for Insulating papers, gasket base papers, artificial leather base papers, flower sack papers, tag papers, abrasive papers (sand paper)
Butman Feyling OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION - WAR PRODUCTION BOARD -- For Immediate release - Tuesday, June 8, 1943 Tells about the use of waste manila rope for flour and cereal product sack papers, ect...Incidentally, the amendment will provide a market for inferior grades of waste manila rope which must be moved in order to assure a continued flow of the better grades. Inferior grades, however, are directed into channels where this fiber will be used with the greatest benefit.
June 19, 1943 TO PROMOTE FOREIGN TRADE - FOREIGN COMMERCE WEEKLY: page 27: Rope & Twine Shortage Poses Challenging Problems. A shortage of approximately 50,000,000 pounds of rope and commercial tying twine for military and civilian requirements, together with the immediate necessity of producing more rope...Page 28 had story were the US government purchased and distributed 2,500 hand looms to poor families in Argentina to enable them to weave in their homes...."While it is admitted that the manual loom cannot compete with the power looms of the factory, it is pointed out by interested Argentineans that this cottage industry will use millions of idle hours of labor now going to waste - filling in between the usual household tasks."
Handwritten - Hemp July 1, 1943: Office of Experiment Stations, Report to War Records Project: "The need for a labor-saving machine for hemp production has brought about the development of the Iowa station of an outfit requiring but little power which will turn the hemp in the swarth for future retting. This machine will have a capacity of two acres per hour as compared with three acres per day by an experienced and ablebodied man. Power can be furnished by an ordinary farm truck.
Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering - Hemp - July 1, 1943: Report to War Records Project - judging quality of hemp straw in 1943 - studies were conducted on machines to determine rapidly the moisture content of the straw....Plans and arrangement for cultural, adaptation and retting experiments with State Experiment Stations in South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Indiana, and Michigan, were completed as well as similar plans and arrangements for hemp seed production experiments in Kansas & Illinois. Also tells of book ready for publication, and field hemp seed treatment and storage experiments were planned and started during the quarter.
July 1, 1943: Report to War Records Project: Subject Hemp - talks of soils grouped in accordance with their suitability for hemp and schedules developed as guides for making arrangements with individual growers.
Article: New York Times July 9, 1943: HEMP AGAIN MAY FIND OLD KENTUCKY HOME: Federal Crop Plan for 500,000 Tons Annually. "Government plans to grow nearly half a million tons of hemp annually promise to restore to Kentucky the hemp industry for which the State was first distinguished. Hemp was introduced into Kentucky near Danville a year before the Declaration of Independence, the National Geographic Society explains. The blue grass section was adapted to hemp. Seed had come from Europe and Virginia supplied Kentucky's early planters.... In 1909 Kentucky produced 6,500 pounds of fiber. By 1939 the State's production had decreased to 175,000 pounds. Foreign competition cut domestic output. ***never mentions making it a drug.***
HEMP, WARTIME CROP IN THE CORN BELT: July 1943 VA1a(3) This is a great page on cultivation, talks about durability to storms. Talks about the nutriments needed for growing...Talks about special machines needed. This is the ending paragraph: "Hemp can be seeded by the Corn Belt farmer without too much inconvenience; for he can sandwich the work between oats seeding and corn planting. Harvesting presents a greater problem, partly because it requires special machinery and partly because it is spread over a longer period of time and the later stages conflict with soybean harvesting and corn picking. Hence hemp should be considered primarily a wartime crop needed to meet an emergency rather than a permanent addition to Corn Belt economy. Alden Cutshall. Geographical Review 33: 498-499 (July 1943).
Hand written: August 2, 1943: John A. McIntire: Mr. McIntire was interviewed on August 2, 1943, 4:00 5:00 PM by W.D. Rasmussen on the Department hemp program. Mr. McIntire of the Solicitor's Office handles the legal aspects of the program but seems to be familiar with almost all aspects. He was most cooperative. He outlined the development of the program somewhat as follows:***The rest of this page details everything I have documented in this reports to present***Appears that perhaps a conspiracy of the flamboyant sums of money being racked in is about to be exposed.*****4 pages final page I have a copy of reads: "The marijuana problem causes considerable concern; is one reason why the hemp program is so carefully controlled and confined to the northern states. There is full cooperation with the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, State Department., and state narcotic agencies**********first mention of marijuana again
August 6, 1943 hand written letter hemp: Conversation with George E. Farrell on problems of fiber production, on Aug. 6, 1943. Mr. Farrell was on the Interbureau Coordinating Committee on Special Fiber Crops as one of the BAE representatives and has kept in very close touch with all the problems and programs. ...The mechanical turning of hemp in the field is a very important problem. Chemical & tank retting offer possibilitiesVarious programs are under way for combining hemp with abaca. The HBoston Navy Yard and two private cordage companies are mainly concerned with this program.
Newspaper clipping: St. Paul Minnesota: St. Paul Pioneer - Press Aug 15, 1943 HEMP CROP FAILS; TO BE PLOWED UNDER Article has to do with imported seeds from China that did not work, and the farmer is going to lose out. One of the persons is arguing that only about 3,500 of the 4,000 acres total would be plowed under. Less than a third of the total. ..".wherein the growers were to receive from $35 to $50 a ton for hemp delivered at the mill."
Washington, D.C. - Washington Post September 1, 1943 Article The Washington Merry-Go-Round talks about the governments inability to decide whether or not to big time increase full fledged hemp production. "And it is regarding these factories, plus harvesting machines, that the WPB refuses to make up its mind. Meanwhile precious time passes. And it may be that just as Jesse Jones postponed action on rubber factories, so will hemp production be delayed.
hand written: Hemp: September 14, 1943: Interview with Oscar D. Klein, Special Programs Division, Agricultural adjustment administration. 2:30 - 3:00 PM, September 14, 1943: Mr. Klein review, briefly, the general fiber situation and hemp growing. He made the following special points: (1) seed hemp can be raised on rather poor soil, fiber hemp requires very good soil. (2) Hemp is an excellent crop for choking noxious weeds, especially the Canadian thistle. Mr. Kleins farm is in the heart of...He thinks patriotism has been the most impelling motive in the successful sign-up......
The Milwaukee Journal - Newspaper article - September 26, 1943: Picture & caption: Those tall stalks are hemp.. To Louis Hammen, at the wheel of the tractor, they mean a 100% crop on the first try. Hammen, who lives near Ripon, is one of thousands of Wisconsin farmers who grew hemp for the first time this year. The 1943 crop is the largest in Wisconsin history and will be more than four times as large as last year's total, but the machinery shortage may delay processing at mills. Shown with Hammen is Charles Siedschlag.
Classified: This document is the property of the United States Government: Disclosure to any unauthorized person is forbidden: October 27, 1943 Restricted! SUBJECT: Modification of American Hemp Program. States that 75 million pounds of hemp is needed and not 300,000 million pounds as before - ...no further critical materials shall be put into process in the construction of any of the scutching mills authorized in Program Determination No. 70, except that sufficient mills shall be completed to process the 1943 corp...5. The Hemp Division shall be advised that as much as possible of the hemp to be produced hereafter shall be of the Wisconsin type; that is, that it shall be scutched and milled in accordance with the practice followed in Wisconsin....
October 27, 1943: Restricted: This document is the property of the United States Government. Disclosure to any unauthorized person is forbidden: From WAR PRODUCTION BOARD - WASHINGTON, DC PROGRAM DETERMINATION NO. 70 (Amendment 1) 3) The Hemp Division shall be requested to make available sufficient seed to expand the program in 1945, should it become necessary, to yield a total of 100 million pounds of Wisconsin type line fiber. 4) The over-all fiber position shall be reviewed on September 1, 1944, in order that the Hemp Division may be advised of the program to be followed in contracting for 1945 plantings.
George: Ag 3263 AG 906: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE For Immediate Release: Friday, January 14, 1944: WFA Announces 1944 Hemp Production Program:***60,000 acres of hemp in 1944***Acreage was expanded in 1943 168,000 were under contract - output yield about 100,000,000 pounds of hemp fiber...Officials stated that with the improved shipping situation, the tonage of straw produced in 1943 and the tonnage to be grown under contract in 1944 will meet prospective requirements for the next two years.
George: AG 3263 AG 913 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE: For Immediate Release: Friday January 21, 1944: The WFA Hemp Program: ...Officials expect that the production of fiber by private hemp mills will be sufficient to supply the requirements of the textile industry for hemp fiber.
OFFICE OF ECONOMIC STABILIZATION: Washington, D.C.: April 29, 1944: From: Fred M. Vinson Director: To: Commodity Credit Corporation, Washington 25, D.C.: Gentlemen: This will constitute my approval of the proposed price support program on American hemp seed of the 1944 crop in an amount of not to exceed $250,000, as recommended in the War Food Administrator's letter to me of April 25, 1944
Typed letter April 25, 1944 from Marvin Jones Administrator; to: Hon Judge Fred B. Vinson, Director: Office of Economic Stabilization: ...1944. The proposed support price is $7. per bushel for cleaned hemp seed....$8. per bushel in 1942 and $10 per bushel in 1943 through an agreement.....(CCC will buy all of 1944 crop).
September 15, 1944: Cross Reference Number: VA la (3) Title: 1945 Commodity Price-Support Recommendations Source: Personal file of Peyton Kerr, Chief, Distribution Programs Branch Nature of Material: Report on Cotton, Gun Naval Stores, and American Hemp: With text on legal status summary of price support history ceiling and parketing prices as related to support-prices. Summary of Production status Pertinent information 1945 Price Recommendations Programs proposed for maintaining recommended prices Statistical Tables attached
AGRICULTURAL APPROPRIATION BILL FOR 1944: HEARINGS BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS UNTIED STATES SENATE: Seventy-Eighth Congress: First Session on H.R. 2481: A Bill making appropriations for the department of agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944 and for other purposes: USGPR - WASHINGTON: 1943 page 696 STUDIES MADE RELATIVE TO AREAS FOR HEMP PRODUCTION: SENATOR BROOKS: You mentioned that all-important problem of this hemp area. How do you approach that and how do you determine whether it is to be and what contributions do you make on a subject of that kind? MR. BUCHANNAN: In the first place, we have for many years been actively surveying the soils of the State of Iowa in this case. When the problem of hemp came up, a group from the Department of Agriculture came out and sat down with us, and we studied intensively the areas that we thought might be most suitable. On the basis of the very meager studies on hemp that had been made, particularly in Wisconsin, it was decided that certain types of land best adapted in Iowa to the raising of corn were probably best adapted to the raising of hemp. However, we have other problems such as climate to take into consideration. In the growing of hemp it is necessary not only to grow it but to ret it in order to get the fiber out. We then went into a study of the climatic situation in the State. It happens that the northeastern corner of the State is the most moist; the northwestern corner is the driest. The northeastern corner does not have the right soils. There are right soils throughout the western part and central part of the State, and on the basis of climate and soil we made our best determination. We are, in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture, making a number of studies. We did the best we could with the information we had. We are putting out fertilizer tests and considerably extending the area under investigation. It would be highly desirable, for example, if hemp could be grown much farther west in the State, but it is probable that the situation will reference to retting would not be so favorable. We are, therefore, undertaking a study to see if it is not possible artificially to ret the hemp and bring the hemp into an area where you could displace wheat in crop rotation where it would be very desirable from that standpoint. Have I answered what you hand in mind? SENATOR BROOKS: Yes; I think so, but you found you were confining it to the one State in the over-all picture. MR. BUCHANAN: No. The over-all picture includes Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. SENATOR BROOKS: And the studies that you made were for the State of Iowa, and the other colleges made their studies? MR. BUCHANAN: The other colleges would do the same for their own states. SENATOR BROOKS: Thank you. I wondered how you approached the problem.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS 1945: USGPO: Washington 1945: For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Offices: Washington 25, D.C. Prices (Paper) $1.00 page 280 has table 376 which shows that Kansas in 1943 produced 12,000 bushels. For seed 9,000 bushels, home grown 2,000: Fed to livestock 2,000 bushels For farm household use 1,000 bushels. Sold 7,000 bushels In 1944 Kansas Produced 8,000; Used for seed 9,000; homegrown 2,000 bushels; Fed to livestock 1,000 bushels; for farm household use; 1,000 bushels; sold 4,000 bushels chart 377 shows hemp fiber and hemp seed: Acreage, yield and production in the United States 1931 to 1944. chart 378: Hemp fiber and hemp seed: Acreage, yield and production, by states, average 1938 to 42, annual 1943 and 1944
Typed letter from C.V. Wells Chief Program Analyst to: Mr. H. C. Brown Clermont, Florida, August 10, 1945: This will acknowledge your letter of August 3, together with the sample of ramie fiber which was attached. I am calling your letter to the attention of Mr. George Farrell who works in the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and who has some real interest in the possibilities of the use and development of such fibers as ramie, flax and hemp which are now produced in small quantities in the United States.
Captioned: CCC - Hemp (? can't read) Hearings before the Committee on Banking and Currency, House of Representatives, 79th Congress.....(Continuance of Commodity, Credit Corporation, January 31, Feb. 1 & 2, 1945 WFA and CCC - Condensed operating statements Loss on hemp July, 1943 to June 30, 1944...$329,072. This is only loss from October 17, 1933 to June 30, 1945. During same total period, credit of $2,769 for period July 1, 1942 to June 30, 1943 on cotton, burlap and jute fabrics. Sales of rubber to rubber reserve co: $11,090,907 profit Oct 17, 1933 to June 30, 1942 $35,456 loss July 1, 1943 to June 30, 1944 $11,055,451 profit October 17, 1933 tro June 30, 1945 page 39 On October 31, 1944, WFA and CCC owned $23,174,081.01 worth of hemp and milkweed floss. pg 47 On June 30, 1941, owned 91,556 tons of rubber valued at $31,771,229. pg 85 ".....Hemp production had been a thriving industry in this county in the eighteenth century, but by the end of the nineteenth the domestic hemp had been crowded from the domestic market by foreign fibers - by jute from India, manila hemp from the Philippine Islands.....Kentucky continued to produce hemp on a relatively small scale to meet some specialized domestic needs. Wisconsin also has been growing some hemp in recent years and had installed a mechanical process for cleaning and separating hemp fiber....
August 11, 1945: To: DR. H. R. Tolley, Chief Bureau of Agricultural Economics: From Mr. George E. Farrell, Bureau of Agricultural Economics: This memorandum will bring you up to date on the hemp developments. Prospectus on hemp prepared by Butler Shipbuilding Corporation (It appears there is a lot of money behind this Minnesota corporation. for the Smaller War Plants Corporation. Hemp Spinning Mill in the Corn Belt. Machinery manufactured in Belfast, Ireland, & sold by their headquarters in Leads, England. "Fairborne, Coombe, Lawson and Barbour" machinery manufactures of spinning machinery. ..."I understand that the Cargill Grain Company is supply considerable money for this work."
Hand written letter dated February 1946 152.238 S&9 Peterson, Arthur B., MacDonald, H.J.C., and Knox, Newton. Study of experience in industrial mobilization in World War II; Development of submarginal resources. Pg.152 Washington, Army Industrial College. February 1946. Hemp , pg 10-14 Milkweed Floss, pg 14-15 Fibers (foreign), pg. 112 References on hemp: USDA press release, 12 March 1942: Report of the Hemp Conference held at Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 13 and 14 June 1944. Utilization of Farm Crops (fiber), Hearings before a subcommittee of the committee on agriculture and forestry, United States Senate, 78th Congress, 2nd Sess S. Res. 80, Pt. 9, 1944
Economy Geography, 22: 126=132, Illus, map, April 1946 Hemp; A Minor American Fiber Crop ...Tells what is made from fibers - 80 to 10 day for harvest. ..."As the nation grew, well-defined but widely scattered hemp districts developed, flourished for several decades, and then all but disappeared, only to be revived again briefly during WWII by the Hemp Division of the CCC"... "Foreign Competition and Imports: Until machine methods were introduced, American hemp production was handicapped by its requirement for much highly skilled hand labor. ....At present, it is done in a large power driven machine equipped mill, which forms the focal point of each hemp district. A skilled hemp breaker fifty years ago could separate about 250 pounds of fiber daily. A crop of fifty acres required services of an estimated ten skilled hemp breakers for about two months. A modern mill will separates about 10,000 pounds of fiber in an eight hour day requires services of about eighty employees, both men and women." "In competition with cheap European and Asiatic labor, home producers...In Europe, the leaders were France, Italy, Austria, and Russia; whereas, China and Japan lead in Asia. Of them all, Italy produced the best grades of fiber. ...From foreign sources an average of about 2,000 tons of fiber was imported each year from 1850 until the close of the Civil War. ...Hemp imports increased tremendously during the next thirty years, reaching a maximum of over 55,000 tons in 1889, only to decline rapidly to about 4,000 tons by 1900...For the next twenty years, imports of hemp averaged about 5,000 tons yearly, but during the ensuing decade 1920 - 1930 completely disappeared. American grown hemp followed a corresponding trend, to reach its lowest figure in 1933 when less than fifty tons of fiber were produced in the United States. In the last few years, before the department of Agriculture set up the Hemp Division, the average yearly production was about 600 tons. "Hemp Growing Districts: ...At the height of hemp fiber production, when the Lexington Plain of central Kentucky was the center of hemp growing, the district, together with the Gulf Plain of western Kentucky, accounts for 75 per cent of the American hemp fiber until as late as 1901. Although most of the large towns of the district were hemp markets, Lexington let them all. Less districts included the Platte valley of eastern Nebraska, the Missouri valley between St. Joseph and Kansas City, northern Champaign County in the corn belt in eastern Illinois, the Gulf Coast of Texas near Houston, and the Sacramento and San Benito valleys of California. As late as 1909, hemp was grown in the Fox River Valley of Wisconsin in cooperation with the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station." (Note other records from Wisconsin show until 1918.) "Figure 2: The distribution of hemp mills in 1944 shows little relation to the earlier districts. The wartime hemp districts moved northward to northern Illinois and Iowa and Southern Wisconsin and Minnesota. Only small remnants of the earlier activity are indicated by the privately owned mills in Wisconsin and Kentucky. page 128 Figure 3 - The cement block buildings with circular roofs and the tall chimney of the power plant standardize the U.S. Department of Agricultural mills. page 129)...The USDA, thus determined the revived hemp district by locating and building forty-two mills at a cost of more than $100,000 each, and established the market by contracting with farmers within radius of twenty or more miles of each mill to grow hemp at a fixed.....The northern mills are in the fiber-producing districts where the Marijuana content of the leaves is lower farther south; all hemp growers must be registered under the Federal Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 and licensed under state laws. ....As the map indicates, twenty five of the forty two government owned mills were not operating in 1944 because the remaining seventeen were able to produce required amount of fiber. ....It was announced in July 1945, that they would close and the buildings would be offered for sale after the crop then under contract had been processed. ....To many it means deliverance from a patriotic duty which, although well paid, did not fit into a long established schedule of work. page 130: tells about seeding, drought, retting, "The government furnished the seed at $12.00 per bushel, specifying a minimum of 1 1/4 bushels per acre, and rented special harvesting machinery at $7.00 per acre, all charges being made against straw delivered at the mill. Although the government agreed to assist, the grower was responsible for additional labor without racial discrimination. German prisoners of war and displaced Japanese-Americans worked in some districts. ...Grading of straw was done by the manager at the mill with a guaranteed price of $50.00 per ton for the highest grade and $30.00 for the lowest. The government assumed cost of the Federal Marijuana Tax and reserved right to cancel the contract by March 1st because of circumstances beyond control of the government agency, or because of failure to secure acreage for hemp sufficient to warrant operation of a mill. About 4,000 acres within fifteen to twenty miles of the mill was considered sufficient. At the height of the program one of the mills in northern Illinois, quite typical of the seventeen areas then in operation, had 4,112 acres under contract, with 189 growers cooperating in the program. ...Aside from the fact that cash income from this source ended, there was no other direct effect on the agricultural structure, for even the special machinery used was rented to the farmer. ...Mills were built near small towns or villages from which they recruited most of the labor at an hourly wage rate higher than the meager community business enterprises ordinarily afforded. ...Only 20 percent of the hemp straw is fiber. The bulky hurds, which have no commercial value, furnished fuel for power to run the plant and were given to farmers for livestock bedding.
Pubdate: 1947 Source: The Yearbook of Agriculture; 1943-1947, United States Department of Agriculture Author: H.A. Borthwick, USDA Senior Botanist in the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering Pages: 282-283 - DAY LENGTH AND FLOWERING - HEMP
Federal Register November 15, 1947 page 7248 "Rules & Regulations" Title 6 - Agricultural Credit Chapter 11 - Production and Marketing Administration (Commodity Credit) Part 298 - Hemp - Statement of Policy No. 1: The Commodity Credit Corporation of the USDA will support the price of the 1947 crop of hemp from November 1, 1947, to June 30, 1948. If price support operations become necessary to give growers the same percentage of return they have received from mills in previous years, such support will be accomplished through purchases of hemp fiber processed from the 1947 crop. Purchases will be made from hemp mills which meet the following requirements: (1) The mill must have been in operation in 1945: (2) The total plantings of hemp at each mill for the crop year 1947 did not exceed 1200 acres; and, (3) The mill has paid or will pay to growers of hemp grown in 1947 a percentage of return not less than the percentage of return paid by it in previous years. (Seal) Jesse B. Gilmer, President, Commodity Credit Corporation, October 30, 1947. (P.R.Doc. 47-9837; filed , November 4, 1947 9:03 AM)
War Hemp Emergency Operations: Commodity Credit Corporation: History Section BTE USDA Row 3908 S. Building pg. 1) Review: War Hemp Emergency Operations: Commodity Credit Corporation: pg. 2) Compiled and Arranged by: Robert P. Gregg, Administration Analyst, Organization and Management Division, Budget & Management Range, Production and Marketing Administration, USDA pg 3) FORWARD: The purpose of the review was to bring together in one document all the essential and pertinent facts and operations of the program and to make such dada available to all officers and employees of the Administration...The summary of the activities is presented under certain general headings: (1) the conditions prevailing in early 1942 with respect to hemp production in the US (2) the program operations in 1942; the plans for the expanded production for 1943 and subsequent years; (3) the creation and establishment of War Hemp Industries, Inc., (4) operations under War Hemp for the years 1943 - 1947; (5) the Milkweed Floss Program; (6) production, and acreage data and summary of costs, receipts, and other financial statistics, (7) some observations with respect to the conditions resulting from the withdrawal of the Government from the program in the period of readjustment after the fighting aspects of the war came to an end. pg 4.) Table of Contents 58 page document -
June 23, 1948 To: Harry Dunkleberger, Chief, Organization & Mgmt. Division From: C.N. Mason, Assistant Chief, Budget Division: Report on War Hemp Emergency Operations, CCC. Reviews previous report, makes suggestions for changes - suggested revisions accepted by Mr. GFreen & rewritten 6 22 48
USDA Agricultural Research Administration Washington, May 28, 1948: Use of Rayon Climbs to New Peak in 1947, While consumption of other synthetic fibers decline: . page 1) "Cotton accounted for 58.7 % of total consumption in 1947, other fibers which helped to supply last year's textile demands were - wool 10.1%, jute 9.9% , hard fibers such as sisal and manila hemp 7.5%., flax .3% silk .1T and soft hemp .1%" ....page 2) Until about 1935, rayon - made from cellulose - was the only synthetic fiber produced commercially in this country. Burt beginning in 1940, consumption of these fibers increased rapidly from 4.5 million pounds to a peak in 1946 of 53.3 million pounds. Although use of some of the non cellulosic synthetics continued to increase in 1947, aggregate consumption declined to 49.8 million pounds. This total greatly exceeds the combined consumption of silk, flax and hemp last year, but it is small compared with the amounts of cotton, rayon, wool, jute, and hard fibers used." gives charts.*** Tells background of fiber glass, aralac, a casein fiber "vegetable protein fiber" - raw material probably from peanuts and corn Saran- fiber from synthetic resin
September 24, 1948 USDA Production and Marketing Administration: Hemp Fiber Sold by CCC: The USDA announced today the sale of approximately 1,245,000 pounds of hemp fiber from stocks held by the CCC which were acquired under its price support program. This sale was made to the French Government under Economic Cooperation Administration program. The hemp fiber was produced ind Wisconsin and is stored in Chicago. This sale completes disposition of all stocks of hemp fiber held by CCC
Book of Agriculture 1964 - Bast, The Textile Fibers page 235, 236) ***words to look up: Urena lobata, a plant of the Malvaceous family, is indigenous to china Nettle fibers - also malvacceous fibers Urtica dioica from Germany, Soviet Union, Hawaii, & Sweden, Italy France
Hemp Industrial Volume II
May 1977 Notes: Hemp by Wayne D. Rasmussen, Historian - reads like a short documentation of the emperor. 2 pages long
Copy of hand written letter Sept 4, 1940 USDA, Report of the Secretary 1940 - ...Jute comes from India, It would be possible to substitute other fibers if necessary. Manila hemp is imported from the Philippine Islands but could probably be grown in Central America. A stock pile of manila fiber has been purchased by the Procurement Division of the Treasury for emergency use." p. 15 This report is signed by Henry A. Wallace.
Article: Defense 2 (29) July 22, 1941: OPACS TO DEVISE PRORATION, SHIPPING ALLOCATION FOR BURLAP...THIS WAS ANNOUNCED JULY 17 FOLLOWING A MEETING OF THE BURLAP IMPORTING AND BAG- MAKING INDUSTRY, AT WHICH PROBLEMS HAVE ARISEN IN CONNECTION WITH BURLAP WERE DISCUSSED. .....ADVISORY COMMITTEE WILL BE APPOINTED TO WORK WITH OPACS.
Article Defense 2 (31) August 5, 1941 CEILING TO BE PUT ON BURLAP AS PRICES RISE OVER 100 PERCENT From 6.5 to 14.2 cents...the rise in the price of burlap, most of which is imported from India, is widely attributed in the trade to a shortage of shipping space. ...Present emergency price increases cannot be justified or allowed on the basis of a shortage of supply alone.
Article Defense 2 (33) BURLAP CEILING BRINGS PRICES 20 PERCENT UNDER NEW YORK SPOT MARKET QUOTATIONS: inflated levels as result of a price ceiling on burlap approximately 20 percent below recent quotations on the New York spot market announced August 16 by OPACS Administrator Henderson. (the article now outlines how deliveries will be made and what prices will be paid on merchandise already ordered.).."Imposition of the ceiling is also expected to produce a downward movement in the price of second-hand bags to their normal price relationship of 30 to 40 percent under the prices of new bags of similar kind and quality."
Article: Defense 2 (35) September 3, 1941 MANILA FIBER AND CORDAGE UNDER FULL PRIORITY CONTROL; .....on August 30 by the Division of Priorities to conserve the available supply of imports of this fiber for vital national defense needs. The order sets up three classes of cordage....................................Class C cordage may be sold without restriction, and therefore, will be available for civilian uses. Since it contains only 50 percent manila fiber, it will not interfere with conservation.........There is a shortage of manila fiber for these purposes and stockpiles held by the industry and by Federal agencies are to be increased.
Article Defense 2 (39) September 30, 1941 PRIORITY AID GIVEN IN GULF HURRICANE: Producers of Manila rope throughout the country were advised September 23 by Priorities Director Nelson that demands for rope arising as a result of the then impending Gulf Coast Hurricane had been placed in the same category as defense orders and given full priority......General Preference Order M-36"
Article Defense 2 (48) December 2, 1941 BURLAP SITUATION DISCUSSED AT MEETING November 26 at a meeting between representatives of the Office of Price Administration, the Department of Agriculture, the Office of Production Management, and the burlap importing and bag manufacturing industry committee of OPM. Matters discussed included the availability of cargo space for burlap, outlook for stabilization of prices in Calcutta, and the contemplated burlap allocation order.
Article Victory December 30, 1941 PLEA TO SALVAGE TO BURLAP FOLLOWS ALLOCATION ORDER: ....the Bureau of Industrial Conservation December 26 called upon all users of burlap supplies to conserve and salvage any of this material in their possession at present. Wholesalers, retailers, farmers, or any users of burlap bags were urged to return the bags to the source from which they had come, or to dispose of them with any other so-called waste materials, such as waste paper, scrap metals, old rags, and rubber. All of these items are currently being collected as part of the national "salvage for victory" program sponsored by the Bureau. Waste dealers will now buy burlap, it was said, or collecting charities will accept the material.
Article Victory December 30, 1941 ALL BURLAP, INCLUDING INVENTORIES, TO BE ALLOCATED; MOST PEACE TIME USES CUT OFF. Sets in place quotas for importers and suppliers, consumers, even to "Slashing or mutilating bags in opening them is prohibited....manufacturer is restricted to a 30 days supply.
Don't know where this article is from, or the date. NEW INDUSTRIAL PLANT ESTABLISHED IN BRAZIL; To manufacture bags in which the native fiber Guaxima will be used, in combination with jute, a factory has been established at Vistoria, in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The new industrial plant has an annual capacity of 1,500,000 bags. The fiber is obtained from plants growing chiefly in Amazon Basin.
Article: Victory January 6, 1942 DISPOSAL OF BURLAP EXPLAINED IN AMENDMENT TO CONSERVATION ORDER; "The original order specified that two-thirds of the receipts of each cargo be set aside and not be disposed of except as expressly directed by the OPM The December 31 amendment provided that such burlap be disposed of in the following manner: 1) To fill any order bearing a rating of A-1-j or higher. 2) To fill any order for burlap to be used for sandbags or camouflage cloth placed by the Army or the Navy. 3) To fill any order by the Defense Supplies corporation or other affiliate of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. 4) To fill any order placed by a non importing bag manufacturer to fill orders for the Army and Navy or for orders bearing a rating of A-1-J or higher. ***goes on to say filing is delayed because of printing delays***
Article Victory page 28 January 20, 1942 (Information furnished through Office of Agricultural Defense Relations, USDA "AGRICULTURE...ARGENTINA ALLOCATES $3,000,000 FOR SACK FACTORY TO USE COTTON SURPLUS AND MEET INDUSTRY NEEDS FOR BAGS...says jute bags now used for the handling of flour, and other mill products, sugar, tannin, yerba, raw cotton, cotton seed, tobacco, and other agricultural products. another part of the page has article: PEACETIME RESEARCH PAYS WARTIME DIVIDENDS, SAYS DR. AUCHTER, CITING MANY DEVELOPMENTS: Peacetime research in planting rubber trees and manila hemp in Latin America, developing extra long staple cotton, improving fiber flax culture, and encouraging domestic production of drug plants, is paying wartime dividends, Dr. E.C.Auchter, chief of the Bureau of Plant Industry, pointed out January 14.............Then article talks about: Extra Long Staple Cotton Developed: "The bureau has been developing extra long staple cotton for use in the manufacture of balloons and parachute cloths, gas cells for dirigibles, and airplane wing coverings....another paragraph ............."Since the outbreak of war in Europe...Bureau of Plant Industry have given technical help to drug manufacturers and others in an effort to guarantee a supply of medicinal plants used in making drugs vital to the Nation. Surveys reveal that only 3,500 acres in addition to that formerly planted will supply all medicinal plants needed by US drug firms....another part discuses developed research on sugar cane and sugar beets, another mentions brazil and rubber, and central America.
Article Victory January 27, 1942 page 14 PRICE ADMINISTRATION...CEILING PUT ON NEW MACHINE TOOLS TO HEAD OFF WAR THREAT TO PRICE STABILITY ............Presses are Included: Defining machine tools as "all machines for the cutting, abrading, shaping, and forming of metals," the new schedule covers, in addition to lathes, planers, milling machines, etc., such items as metal-working presses, which are not ordinarily thought of as machine tools. Supply, demand unbalanced: Mr. Henderson ascribed the need for a price ceiling over new machine tools to the unbalanced situation with regard to production and demand. "Under the stimulus of British requirements and the needs of our own defense program, the machine tool industry received hundreds of millions of dollars worth of orders sad the OPA administrator...(the article then outlines how deliveries will be made. and how pricing will be completed on new machinery.)...A special section spells out the method of determining the maximum price for newly developed or special equipment. Full details of such equipment must be furnished to OPA, along with the proposed selling price, not less than 30 days before the date of delivery. The price thus submitted shall be the maximum price unless OPA objects within 15 days after receipt of the information.
Article Victory 3 (4) January 27, 1942 BURLAP ALLOCATION MODIFIED TO PERMIT PROCESSING OF 10 UNBROKEN BALES: The burlap allocation order (M-47) was amended Jan 19 to unfreeze burlap in the hands of certain manufactures, such as furniture and textile plants,....may process up to and including 10 unbroken bales out of their stocks....(article tells how to distribute the rest of their inventories.
Article Victory January 27, 1942 CHOPPING OF 3 FIBERS HALTED BY OPM ORDER Office of Production Management this is the article where they eventually started making rugs and upholstery from wool.
Hand written report: Farm Credit Administration, Report to War Recorder Project, January 28, 1942 "The cooperative research and Service Division is conducting experiments in the bailing of wool and the use of cotton materials to package it. This step has been taken in view of the shortage of burlap and other bagging materials, as well as to effect economics in transportation. The division has assisted in making estimates of the amount of such materials as burlap, metal, glass, and paper which will be required for packaging of various products such as cotton, poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetables, meat, lard, wool, feed, grain, and fertilizer." page 2
article Victory February 3, 1942 page 7 Christmas tree lights, other nonessential lamps to get less of critical metals. taking brass out of shoe eyelets to save enough for million shell cases a year War chemical industry given high ratings for repair, maintenance, operation...Chlorine for purifying water to be provided throughout U.S.
article Victory February 17, 1942 SAVE ON SCARCE ITEMS BY USING SUBSTITUTES OR NOW DESIGN, HIGHWAY DEPARTMENTS ASKED; .............A number of highway departments have been applying preference ratings under the repair and maintenance order to obtain such items as metal culverts, metal road signs, metal rope or cable, metal guard rails, etc., when terra cotta, cement, or wood could be used. The interpretation issued February 13 explains that application of preference ratings in such cases constitutes a violation of the terms of the order, and that preference ratings may not be applied under any circumstances to deliveries of rubber or burlap for highway maintenance, repair or operation.
article Victory March 3, 1942 PROCESSING OF MANILA FIBER, SALES, DELIVERIES OF CORDAGE FURTHER RESTRICTED. With all imports of manila fiber cut off,...Under this reduction, a processor of manila fiber is permitted to process and sell every month approximately 70% of the average number of pounds per month of manila cordage sold by him during 1939, thus reducing the rate at which this scarce material will be processed.
Article Victory March 3, 1942 RUG MAKERS ADVISED TO CONVERT TO NEEDED WAR MATERIALS; ALL JUTE WILL BE TAKEN FOR WAR. ...A cross-section of the rug and carpet industry, comprising an industry advisory committee, discussed at a meeting in Washington February 27 specific products that the industry might be able to manufacture. (there is a list: has lots of ideas.)
Article Victory March 3, 1942 PROCESSING AND DELIVERIES OF AGAVE FIBERS RESTRICTED TO HELP CONSERVE SUPPLY .............Agave fibers used mainly for binder and wrapping twine, come principally from the East Indies, Africa, Haiti, and Mexico...
Article Victory March 10 1942 USE OF JUTE FROM INDIA SHARPLY RESTRICTED; CARPET INDUSTRY MOST HEAVILY AFFECTED Victory March 31, 1942 AGAVE WASTE, IF UNSUITED TO CORD OR TWINE, IS RELEASED
Article Victory April 7, 1942 ABOVE CEILING CONTRACTS FOR NO. 1 OLD MANILA ROPE CAN BE FULFILLED IN SOME INSTANCES ...old manila rope at prices above the ceiling of $115 per ton may now be completed by dealers under certain conditions outlined...old manila rope is used by rope- paper manufactures in production of such essential products as gas masks, cables, parachute flares, and electric insulating paper. Many dealers acquired rope from collectors prior to issuance of the schedule at prices above the established maximum level in order to fulfill contracts already made....
April 14, 1942 Cross Reference Number : V A 1 Title: Burlap quota base changed Source: Victory 3 (15) Nature of Material: Clipping Filed: III D 3
Article April 14, 1942 JUTE FOR RUGS CUT AGAIN BECAUSE OF EVENTS IN ASIA: WPB cut by 50% jute previously allocated to rug and carpet mills.
Article Victory April 21, 1942 "RUG MAKERS WARNED OF SERIOUS JUTE SHORTAGE; ASKED TO CONSIDER DIVERSION OF CARPET WOOL STOCKS TO BLANKETS, APPAREL. The seriousness of the jute situation was explained to the wool floor covering industry at a recent industry advisory committee meeting in Washington in order to prevent manufactures from beginning production on rugs and carpets they might not be able to finish....(shortage.jute)....Storage space for wool needed...They suggested that the mills and warehouses of the floor covering industry could assist in solving this problem...The committee expressed great interest in the possibility of making blankets for the armed forces. A committee member displayed a blanket made to Army specifications."
Article: Victory April 21, 1942 "JAVA SISAL BANNED FOR WRAPPING, BINDER TWINE; OTHER CHANGES The agave fiber cord (M-84) was amended by the WPB April 13 as follows: 1) The use of Java agave sisiana, commonly known in the trade as Java sisal, for manufacturing wrapping twine or binder twine is prohibited. Previously a limited use was permitted. 2) Inventory restrictions of the order as to import shipments of wrapping twine are lifted as to importers of agave cordage and agave twine."
Article Victory April 28 1942 "MORE BINDER TWINE Java Sisal (Java agave sisalana)" (amending an amendment controlling fiber)
Article AGRICULTURE IN THE AMERICAS 2: 97 - 98: May 1942 "JUTE CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL REPORTED SUCCEEDING...Efforts to cultivate Indian jute in the Amazon Valley of Brazil are succeeding, according to information received in the USDC. There is no other fiber known which is equal to jute for the bagging, sacking, baling material needed in the cotton industry of the US and the coffee industry of Brazil. Local authorities say that the vast plain extending on both sides of the Amazon River in the State of Amazonas, irrigated by numerous streams and periodically flooded by heavy rains, should lend itself to the cultivation of the fiber. Thus Brazil can produce an item formerly imported in huge quantities and one for which there is a constant demand in other Latin American Republics and in the United States."
Article Victory May 12, 1942 "RUG, CARPET MAKERS ALLOWED TO USE UP JUTE YARN ON HAND ...permit rug and carpet manufactures to use jute yarns on hand in the manufacture of rugs and carpets beyond the previous shutoff date.
Article Victory 3 (27) July 7, 1942 "BURLAP VARIETIES PUT UNDER NEW PRICE CEILINGS ...Price Administrator Henderson made known July 3 through issuance of Amendment No. 2 to the schedule.
Article Victory July 7, 1942 "BULK OF SUNN HEMP EARMARKED FOR SHIPBUILDING NEEDS ...a fiber grown in India...manufacture Marine oakum...Exempted from the restriction is sunn hemp found unfit for the manufacture of marine oakum, broken bales, and up to 10 unbroken bales in possession of any person on the date of the issuance of the order."
Article Victory August 11, 1942 "GOVERNMENT BUYING OF MANILA CORDAGE EXEMPT FROM GMPR...In order to aid a Government war program calling for the purchase of an estimated 10,000,000 pounds of manila rope and cable held by approximately 6,000 wholesalers and 44,000 retailers throughout the country...general maximum price regulation...authorized to purchase stocks of cordage frozen by WPS's General Preference Order M-36"
Article Victory October 13, 1942 "FOUR-COUNTRY PROGRAM TO SPEED MANILA HEMP OUTPUT The Board of Economic Warfare and the Defense Supplies Corporation ...contracts...signed...United Fruit Co.....40,000 acres of abaca in four Central American countries - Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras...acres will yield at least 40,000,000 pounds of dried abaca fiber annually...."
Hand written letter USDA, Report of the Administrator of The Agricultural Conservation and Adjustment Administration, 1942 October 1942 "Fiber Flax" (talks about tonnage per year, prices, where grown, and percentages per states.
Press Release USDA November 8, 1942 "Armed Forces Get Waterfowl Feathers; Civilians to Use Chicken Feathers" (public will have to use chicken feathers, because the government will get all water fowl feathers because of their curl.) two page press release
Article November 12, 1942 "JUTE YARN ORDERED AMENDED TO RELIEVE ROPE SHORTAGE ...This action, taken in an amendment to Order M-84, was necessary to relieve the rope shortage and expand the facilities engaged in its manufacture from jute, istle and cotton to include hard fiber processors.."
hand written report: Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and engineering, Report to War Records Project, November 11, 1942. [from report market Confidential] "Fibers & Fabrics: Design of a mill for processing domestic hemp to replace Manila hemp, abaca, and sisal, was nearly completed. Assistance was given in the organization of a new company in Juneau, Wis., which will develop the enterprise. Construction of four flax mills, based on plans developed by the Bureau, was nearly completed, and two of the mills processed some flax. There are about 12 fiber flax processing plants in Oregon, either in operation or under construction. An experimental fiber flax combine was tried out with encouraging results. It simulated service tests, cotton bags were found to be satisfactory substitutes for standard jute bags in handling of raw sugar. Preliminary success was reported in the preparations of buoyant, waterproof substitutes for kapok from cellulose acetate. Field tests showed that cotton twine had sufficient strength to substitute for sisal and Manila hemp twine in binding grain sheaves."
typed document: page 7 2713 USDA 2447 48 7 "RESEARCH OTHER THAN UTILIZATION (don't know what the purpose of this is about: Paragraph on "Wheat Poisoning" where in Kansas Oklahoma and Texas cattle are dying from grazing on these lands. Undesirable Range Plants - mesquite chemicals to make it stop growing in Arizona, says they are losing $20,000,000 in revenues. Marketing Western Livestock - headquarters for the work are in Denver Colorado Marketing by Carcase Grade & Weight - information on the slaughtering of cattle, veal calves, lambs, and hogs, at packing plants in 11 states Locker Plants and Home Freezers 25 pages of library card Index referencing all the materials used
Notice: This material may be protected by copyright law (Title 17 US code) Large heavy 7 in top left corner number 1 centered above page 77 bottom right "COMPLETE UTILIZATION OF THE HEMP THROUGH ALKALK-OXYGEN AND CHEMIMECHANICAL PROCESSES. A. BOSIA, D. NISI: Centro di Sperimentazione per la Cellulosa E per la Carta, E.N.C.C., Roma, Italia. In the immediate post-war period, Italy produced 50% of the total world production of hemp (cannabis sativa) with 560,000 t/a in order to meet the requirements of the textile and paper industries...main reasons why the acreage...is now reduced to a few hectacres,...1) Drop in the demand of the long fibers after the marketing of synthetic fibers. 2) No technical improvement either of the machinery ...3) Limited or no utilization of the short fibers of the woody core which account for 2/3 of the whole plant....in different Italian regions, the most appropriate varieties for paper-making and to study the influence of fertilization, seed density, irrigation" page 79 UTILIZATION OF HARDS IN PAPER MAKING appears that the cellulose content of the woody core of hemp is very low (36%) hence the utilization of these hards as a chemical pulp is considered unsuitable, even though it has fibers with a substantial collapse capacity (tab 2) and thus can produce pulp with good mechanical properties...From the comparison between the two types of pulp, it is clear that it is possible to obtain from the hards a pulp which can be used for those kinds of paper where poplar is currently used...long fibers with the aim of producing a high degree brightness pulp for use in low basis weight papers. page 81 however, the viscosity data of bleached pulp, obtained with oxygen pressures of 506 kpa followed by a mild bleaching treatment, are greater than those obtained from pulp produced in the same experimental conditions, but with liquors without oxygen; as far as bleaching is concerned, the latter must have in fact, higher amounts of chlorine to achieve the same brightness . Conclusions: It is very likely that the cultivation of hemp will be resumed in Italy... page 83 shows Pilot Plant - hards and bark fibers separation : Diagram could be used to make a machine Chemical analysis of bark and hards of Carmagnola HEMP ** This is great page 85 Test results of strength properties of bleached bast fiber pulps - 505 kPa O2 Test results strength properties of bleached bast fiber pulps 1013 kPa-O2
Hemp production experiments; Cultural practices and soil requirements. Iowa Agriculture Experiment Station. Bul. P-63, 1944. SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY PROCEEDINGS 1944: THE RESPONSE OF HEMP TO FERTILIZERS IN IOWA by C.A. Black & A. J. Vessel page 179 shows soil type, location, and past management of experimental field 180 Results of 1943 experiments: Nitrogen, Phosphorus: Table 2 - The effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers on the yield of hemp, 1943 experiments. page 181 Potassium: Table 3: The effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizers on the yield of hemp, 1944 experiments. page 182 Phosphorus Potassium figure 1) The relative height response of hemp throughout the season to nitrogen and phosphorus added singly and in combination.....page 183 (has Discussion this is great in documenting the advantageous effects of what hemp does to the soil, and the great condition it leaves it for the next crop, and documents that "Hemp, however, does not seem to be affected." page 184 summary of fertilizer tests in Iowa results could be used in any growing situation for hemp success: