NATURAL RESOURCES ACTIVITY OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT by JR Mahoney, January 1950: Public Affairs: Bulletin No. 76 page 195 Shrinking supply limits timber use Timber growth pg 196 Timber drain pg 197 Comparison of growth and drain , 1944 pg 198 Goals for timber growth Domestic requirements pg Figure 26 graph Use and Waste in Logging and Manufacture of All Timber Products, United States, 1944 pg Fig 27 graph The flow of pulpwood and other fibrous material into paper and paperboard products, United States, 1939, (in terms of wood-pulp tonnage). pg 199 Lumber Pulpwood "Because rising standards of living in other parts of the world may add heavily to demands on the countries from which we are now importing paper, pulp, and pulpwood, the long-range estimate visualized the US becoming self-sufficient in these products" page 200 Fuel-wood New Uses ...For one thing, wood is being adapted to many new construction uses, Laminated wood arches, for instance, have proved a satisfactory substitute for steel in such wide-roofed buildings as gymnasiums and auditoriums. The range of wood use is also being extended by new methods of gluing...By chemical treatment, heat, and pressure, wood may be converted into new materials of great utility and promise. It may be rendered impervious to moisture, acid, and other chemicals. It may be molded into a variety of shapes. Specific gravity can be varied from section to section of the same piece. a property of special significance for such items as airplane propellers....Beyond this, the outlook is bright for wood as a chemical raw material. Under the stimulus of war, initial plant installations have been made for manufacturing industrial ethyl alcohol from sawmill and pulp-mill waste. Ethyl alcohol, in addition to supplying many other commercial demands, may be used in the manufacture of rubber... page 201 Lignin, the wood constituent nest to importance to cellulose, is now largely wasted because its chemical formula is obscure. But chemists have begun to penetrate its mysteries. Lignin has been found valuable as binding material for road surfaces, in reducing the amount of lead needed in storage batteries, as a dispersing agent for cement in making concrete, and in plastics. Once understood, this plentiful by-product, which now pollutes some of our rivers, may find wide beneficial use. National Security "Dependence upon imports for such vital materials as rubber also affects national security. page 202 Foreign Markets and Supplies ...Considering wood in all forms, including pulp, the United States has imported more than it exported for the last 30 years or more. Timber for general construction purposes is scarce through out most of the civilized world. ...Some consumers in the US have turned to Central and South America for timber, but shipments from this direction are not likely to be large and will be chiefly hardwood. South America will however, continue to export tropical woods for specialty uses. pg. 203 Europe, which as a whole was self- sufficient in timber before the war, will need to import heavily for a long time. The needs for reconstruction are great and output on the whole is likely to be less than before the war. Sweden, Finland, and Russia are the only countries with resources to permit an increased cut. The countries most in need of imports are the United Kingdom, France, and the Low Countries....However, Germany's growing stock was not greatly impaired by the war, and her forests should be able to take care of most of her reconstruction needs."
Short book: either Hemp growing in Wisconsin or Kentucky. Contains pages 7 through 16, is printed by the US Government Printing Office in 1952: For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office: Washington 25, DC price 10 cents Tells how to grow hemp, and tells of industry in Wisconsin & Kentucky:
Book: IOWA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE: Volume 58 1951: Nutrition and Aeration in Relation to the Growth of Cannabis Sativa by John R. Weber: ............page 221..........The test procedures for these purposes listed involved the use of (1) favorable versus comparatively inadequate nutrition, (2) soil aeration versus absence thereof, and (3) use of long day which delays flowering. Since differences in substrate might be expected to cause variation in rate of growth, size, and floral numbers, special attention was focused on variations which seem to be the more stable structural characteristics already enumerated including sex ratios, even though all major contrasts in growth were noted. It also seeded desirable to determine if well and poorly nourished plants differentiated the same number of nodes before flowering or whether variations in substrate induced any significant alteration in these responses. (Dobrunov, 1934). page 222 METHODS this tells exactly all the nutriments to use growth records - page 223 chart Figure: Stem Length in the Four Series (Mean of Staminate and pistillate plants.) tells of differences of plant growth in relation to nutrition and days before differences become greater. page 224 ...Increases in morphological size under these same conditions have been noticed in corn, tomato, sunflower, and cotton, as well as hemp (Albert & Armstrong, 1931). As stated by Loehwing, 1934, the physiological effect of aeration on tops under high nutrient supplies appears to be an acceleration in development with earlier maturation rather than increased longevity. Table I: Fresh Weight in Grams and Percent of Moisture of Total Tops and Roots Computed as Means for 8 Plants or Each Sex in Each Series page 225 Is not there: Has the charts of dry weight: Major Contrasts: Series Sex page 226 is not there: it is writing, regarding nonaerated & unaerated series growth page 227 Summary & Conclusions page 228 Bibliography Department of Botany: State University of Iowa: Iowa City
BOOK MATTHEW'S TEXTILE FIBERS: THEIR PHYSICAL, MICROSCOPIC, AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Sixth Edition: Prepared by a Staff of Specialists under the Editorship of Herbert R. Mauersberger: Secretary of Textile Book Publishers, Inc. Director, Textile Department, Fairleigh Dickinson College Textile Consultant: 1954 John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York Chapman & Hall, Limited, London: page 258 & 259 Table 1: Relative Importance of Bast Fibers on Basis of World Production (Thousands of short tons) Hemp is listed as a bast fiber, and the years in graph are 1951, 1950 & an average of 1934 - 38 page 312 shows ramie fibers & a graph Table 15: Chemical Components of Decorticated Ramie Fibers page 313 Nomenclature Plant History: Use of the plant for fiber, which predates written history, apparently originated in Asia or the Near East. Records indicate that the fibers were used in China and in Persia and other parts of the Near East from prehistoric times. Hemp is the oldest textile fiber used in Japan. Cultivation of the plant for fiber spread to many of the Mediterranean countries of Europe, notably Italy, during the early centuries of the Christian Era and expanded through Europe during the Middle Ages. Discussion of the use of hemp fiber in Europe in the sixteenth century by Rabelais in his essay "Pantegruelion" is well known. Russia has cultivated the plant from very early times and formerly was the world's principal supplier of hemp fiber. For many years Russian hemp was the standard fiber for cordage use and the fiber against which the strengths of other fibers were measured. The plant has been cultivated in the United States since early colonial times. Chile has grown the plant for more than 400 years and Argentina in small quantities for a long time. World Production: Hemp fiber is produced in all European, including Scandinavian, and in most Asiatic countries. The most important producing countries are Italy, which grown 20% of the total world supply, Yugoslavia, which grows 10% of the total , and the USSR which grows approximately half of the total. page 315 Principal producing areas in Italy are located in ..Other important areas were the North Ukraine, the North Caucasus, West Siberia, the South Ukraine and Crimea, the Upper Volga, the central industrial region, and the Ural region. In the Americas, the US & Chile,...Argentina during the 1930's but only a small quantity is being produced....Some hemp, however notably Italian hemp, is so carefully prepared that comparatively fine yarns...The Japanese also produce a very small quantity of similar fabrics, using hand methods...very soft and lustrous...It has been stated that the chief use for hemp presently being produced in the US is in the fabrication of cellulose sponges. page 316 Table 16: World Production of Hemp by Principal Producing Countries: Period 1951, 1950, 1949, & Average 1934 - 38 Countries: USSR, Italy, Yugoslavia, Roumania, Korea, China, Manchuria, Hungary, Turkey, Chile, Poland, Spain, Japan, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany\Western - Bulgaria Syria, Sweden, United States, Other Countries\Eastern ***Note that this does not include the war years in statistics*** page 317 talks about war years but does not talk of acres grown ...Italian hemp, because of its reputation for fineness and quality, has enjoyed a preference in export trade, and during the 1930's, Italy was the principal hemp-exporting country, supplying about half the total world exports, despite the fact that during the same period the Italian hemp- spinning and weaving industry was expanded. Cultivation page 318 Harvesting Preparation of Fiber and Grading page 319 Characteristics page 320 Tests on cordage fibers conducted by Schiefer showed that Wisconsin Line No. 1 hemp fiber had 72 percent of the dry breaking strength of abaca, grade J2 Davao, and 87 percent of that of sisal, grade 3 L., two of the strongest cordage fibers in use. Figure 15 Hemp fibers: Cross-sections; longitudinal views; ends (Cross & Bevan) page 321 Table 17: Chemical Analysis of Hemp. tells how to tell the difference between Hemp & Flax page 322 Table 18: Names Used in Trade Including Word "Hemp" but representing fibers from plants other than Cannabis Sativa:
African bowstring "hemp" Sansevieria metallica Agrimony "hemp" Enpatorium cannabinum Ambari "hemp" Hibiscuscannabinus Benares"hemp" Crotalaria juncea Blackfellow's "hemp" Commersonia fraseri Bombay "hemp" Crotalaria juncea Bowstring "hemp" Sansevieria rosburghiana and S. zeylanica Brown "hemp" Crotalaria juncea Calcutta "hemp Cohorus capsularis Ceylon bowstring "hemp" Sansevieria zeylanica Colorado River "hemp" Sesbania exallata Conkanee "hemp" Crotalaria juncea Cretan "hemp" Dalisca cannabina Cuban "hemp" Furcraea cubensis Deccan "hemp" Hibiscus cannabinus False "hemp" Rhus typina False sisal "hemp" Agave decipiens Florida bowstring "hemp" Sansevieria metallica Gambo "hemp" Hibiscus cannabinus Guinea bowstring "hemp" Sansevieria thysiflora Guinea "hemp" Hibiscus cannabinus Haiti "hemp" Fucraca gigatea Ife "hemp" Sansevieria cylindrica Indian "hemp" Apocynum cannabinum Indian "hemp" Crotalaria juncea Itarsi "hemp" Crotalaria juncea Jubbulpore "hemp" Crotalaria juncea Kaffir "hemp" Grewia occidentalis Kudzu "hemp" Pueraria thunbergiana Madras "hermp" Crotalaria juncea Manilla "hemp" Musa textilis Mauritius "hemp" Furcraea gigantea Mush "hemp" Hibiscus abelmoschus New Zealand "hemp" Phormium tenax Pangane "hemp" Sansevieria kirkii Perini "hemp" Hibiscus cannabinus Pita "hemp" Yucca species Puya "hemp" Maoutia puya Queensland "hemp" Sida rhombifolia Rajmahal "hemp" Marsdenia tenacissima Rangoon"hemp" Laportea gigas Roselle "hemp" Hibiscus sabdariffa Sann "hemp" Crotalaria juncea Sisqal "hemp" Agave sisalana Somaliland bowstring "hemp"` Sansevieria eherenbrrgii Sunn "hemp" Agave sisalana Swedish "hemp" Urtica dioica Tampico "hemp" Eupatorium cannabinum
Page 354 - 355 Textile Fibers Bibliography The Bast Fibers
page 436 - 437 Textile Fibers Bibliography The Leaf Fibers:
Bulletin 590 September 1957 University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations JR Beckenbach, Director, Gainesville, Florida Agronic Studies of Fiber Plants Jute, Sisal, Henequen, Fucraea, Hemp and Other Miscellaneous types C.C. Seal, JF Joyner & JB Pate Contents: Hemp page 12) Agronim Studies of Fiber Plants: Jute page 12 Hemp: Hemp, Cannabis Sativa L., is a bast fiber plant of the family Moraceae. It is an annual plant that is propagated from seed, and can be rapidly brought into production. Dioecious varieties of hemp have been generally cultivated, but owing to differences in maturation of male and female plants considerable variation in yield and quality of fiber occurs (40). In recent years monecious varieties have been developed (13). The following seeding rates have been recommended: (a) for fiber production, 33 to 35 pounds per acre, either broadcast or pg 13 drilled in rows 4 to 6 inches apart; (b) for seed production, 1 1/2 pounds per acre planted in hills spaced 5 feet apart (40) The hemp plant contains the drug marijuana and cannot be grown without a permit from the Internal Revenue Service of the US Treasury.(40) the rest of the page tells about Wisconsin Kentucky & the war. page 14 ...South Florida, with its favorable weather conditions and short day lengths in the fall and early spring, seemed seemed to offer possibilities for the production of high quality hemp seed form plants suitable for mechanical harvest. Experimental Procedure Hemp seed production was studied in date of planting experiments on Everglades peat near Belle Glade and on Immokalee fine sand near Lake Worth. Plantings were made on Everglades peat each month during the period May through August 1951 in randomized block experiment in plats consisting of three rows 10 feet long spaced 1 foot apart. An experimental monoecious variety of hemp was seeded at a rate of 8 pounds per acre. Plant height measurements were made when the seed crop was ripe. Seed samples were taken for germination tests, but no seed yields were obtained. Plantings were made on Immokalee fine sand every two months during the period July 1954 through January 1956 in a randomized block experiment in plots consisting of four rows 20 feed long spaced 3 feet apart. The same variety of monoecious hemp was seeded at a rate of 8 pounds per acre. Plant height measurements and seed yields were taken when the seed crop was ripe. Results On Everglades peat, best vegetative growth was obtained in the May planting which grew to a mean height of 83 inches. Few seed were produced in this planting, and the plants were very branched. Vegetative growth was progressively reduced in the June, July, and August plantings to 69, 467, and 38 inches, respectively, and poor seed set was obtained in all these plantings. page 15 The quality of all the seed produced was very poor, with germination ranging from 10 to 15 percent. Average height and seed yields on Immokalee fine sand are presented in Table 5. Hemp is very sensitive to a high water table, and several plantings were destroyed during the rainy season. The striking response of hemp to day length cam be seem. Seed yields in the January planting were fair. The February planting gave the highest seed yield of all the planting dates. The April planting grew well vegetatively but was killed by excessive water before flowering. Growth in the June and September plantings was shortened by rains, but fair seed yields were obtained. Growth in the December plantings was reduced by the short day lengths and seed yields were low. The quality of seed produced on these sandy soils was good. Germination tests run on various lots of seed from this experiment averaged 90 percent. Table 5 - Average Heights and Seed Yields of Hemp Planted At Various Dates on Immokalee Fine Sand Near Lake Worth, Florida.
BOOK SEEDS THE YEARBOOK OF AGRICULTURE 1961 (captions under pictures of hemp seeds:) Above, left: Hemp (Cannabis Sativa).
BOOK COMMONWEALTH ECONOMIC COMMITTEE VEGETABLE OILS AND OILSEEDS A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, TRADE, UTILIZATION AND PRICES RELATING TO GROUNDNUTS, COTTONSEED LINSEED, SOYA BEANS, COCONUT AND OIL PALM PRODUCTS, OLIVE OIL AND OTHER OILSEEDS AND OILS COMPILED IN THE INTELLIGENCE BRANCH OF THE COMMONWEALTH ECONOMIC COMMITTEE CEC LONDON 1957 PUBLISHED FOR THE COMMONWEALTH ECONOMIC COMMITTEE BY HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. Contents: MISCELLANEOUS OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS...Hempseed page 177 Hemp is grown extensively in the Soviet Union, but the whole of the seed produced there, which normally exceeds 1/4 million tons a year, is consumed within the county. Roumania is the only country in Europe which has ever exported seed in any appreciable quantities, though the crop is grown extensively for fiber in Italy and other Continental countries. Production in Europe, excluding the Soviet Union, totals about 40,000 tons a year, and before the war a rather larger quantity was produced annually in Manchuria, which supplied the bulk of the seed entering international trade. Manchurian production in 1946 was unofficially estimated 15 120,000 tons. Turkey is a producing country of moderate importance, and hemp is grown for seed in China, Formosa and other countries in the Far East. Chile also produces hemp seed but the 1954-55 harvest was only 3,900 tons compared with nearly 18,000 tons in 1942-43. Turkish production in 1955 was approximately 4,200 tons, as against 2,800 tons in 1934-38. The trade in hemp seed is now very small, but Turkish exports in 1955 recovered to 4,000 tons, or twice the 1540-54 average. Before the war world exports averaged some 60,000 tons per annum, 85 percent, of these supplies being shipped from Manchuria and most of the remaining quantities from Roumania. Japan, the United States, France and the Netherlands were leading importers, while, during the war years, Japan received fairly substantial supplies from Manchuria. Hemp seed oil is used mainly in paints, varnishes and certain kinds of soap in European countries but is widely utilized for edible purposes in Asia.
Library of Congress USDA June 3, 1960 Technical Bulletin No. 1215 Agricultural Research Service USDA PRESERVATION OF HEMP AND KENAF SEED Page 2 - 10 Tells how to keep and store Hemp seed - has different methods of holding each: Cloth Bags - Sealed Jars - talks about temperature moisture content - How many months they were in storage - germination Page 15: Summary and Conclusion: This study was undertaken to determine the effects of relative humidity or various seed moisture contents and temperatures on the preservation of hemp seed (Cannabis sative) ...Four lots of hemp seed were stored at several temperatures in cloth bags at a given relative humidity or in sealed glass jars with an adjusted conditions at localities with various climates. The tests were conducted for 5 1/2 to 8 years...........Hemp as with other crop seeds, will remain viable for a long time if the seed is kept dry and is stored at a low temperature, but viability decreases rapidly under natural conditions in some areas where the crops are grown.
Book VEGETABLE FIBERS Botany, Cultivation, and Utilization: World Crops Books Edited by Professor Nicholas Polunin by R.H. Kirby London Leonard Hill Limited Interscience Publishers, Inc New York 1963 Debs summary: tells all about hemp and cultivation all over the world and compares the differences: pg. 46 Chapter III MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Cannabis Sativa L. (hemp) is today considered by most systematic botanists to be the only species in the genus Cannabis. However, it has many varieties, strains, types, or lines, which differ from each other with regard to their size, color, degree of branching of the stalk, stape and size of leaves, flowering periods, and other characteristics. True hemp must not be confused with the very different Mauritius hemp Manila hemp and some other fibers which are erroneously called hemps. ..Youoslavia is not the most important exporter of hemp, though more than three quarters of the total world production is in the USSR Italy, and Poland. cultivation China ...and consequently Russia and the Baltic States were important producers of the fiber at an early date. The plants also spread to Italy and France, and these countries, too, became centers of production. A good deal of hemp is grown in Europe, especially in the USSR and in Italy where the best quality hemp is produced. page 47 The plant is grown for fiber in temperate regions, whereas in tropical regions, it is grown for the drug. The stalks, leaves, and flowers, produce a resinous juice from which the drug is obtained, and the drug is known under many forms, such as 'charas' (the name given to the resin), 'ganja' (which consists of the dried flowering tops of the cultivated female plant), 'bhang' (the dried leaves and flowering shoots of either the male or female plants, or of both), and 'hashish' (which is the name given to a Turkish preparation of the leaves). Owing to the presence of the drug in the plant, the growing of hemp is forbidden in many tropical countries. The oldest use of the hemp plant seems to have been for fiber, and it was not until later that the seeds began to be used for culinary purposes. The fact that the plant yielded a drug seems to have been first discovered in India, where it appears to have been cultivated for medicinal purposes as early as 900 to 800 B.C., and it was not until medieval times that hemp was brought to North Africa, where today it is cultivated exclusively for 'hashish'. (talks about growing time differences in planting. maturing, and reaping) and if they are cultivated in the long days of central Europe they grow well, but flower and bear seed so late that it does not ripen. page 48 Botany Breeding Experiments page 49 Cultivation page 50 - 51 Cultivation page 52 - 53 Harvesting page 54 Yield Retting page 55 Retting page 56 - 57 Breaking and Scutching page 58 Hemp in China page 59 Hemp in Chile page 60 Quality of Hemp "Properties and Uses of Hemp Hemp fiber is longer than flax fiber, but is less flexible and more coarse. it does not bleach well, and as it lacks elasticity and flexibility it is not used for fine textiles. The ultimate fiber cells vary in length from 5 to 55 mm, and have an average length of about 20 mm.; their diameter varies between 0-016 and 0-050 mm., with a mean of 0'022 mm. The thickness of the cell-wall varies much more than it does in flax, increasing towards the end of the fiber so that the lumes is narrower there. When viewed under the microscope the fiber cells are seen to be irregular in shape, being flattened at some points along their length but cylindrical at others. There are striations on the surface of the fiber but no nodes like those found in flax. The ultimate fiber's have forked ends, and these serve to distinguish them from flax (Goulding, 1917, pp 119-22) Hemp has a cellulose content of 67 percent and contains about 16 percent of hemicelluloses (Urquhart & Howitt, 1953, p 100) Hemp has a 'Z' twist, and this is one way of distinguishing it from flax, which has a 'S' twist (cf. p. 44). Hemp can be used for ropes, twines, cables, nets, sail-cloth, canvas, tarpaulins, ect., but its main use is as a substitute for flax in the manufacture of yarns and twines. Today, however, its place as a material for ropes has to a large extent been taken by such other fiber's as sisal and abaca, which are much stronger and more suitable for this purpose. page 61 Trade ***Note entry following the next one - publication of this book in 1967***
Book Farmer's World` The Yearbook of Agriculture 1964 USDA Bast, The Textile Fibers HEMP pg 232 Hemp ...It is native to central Asia, and has been cultivated for thousands of years A Chinese emperor of the 28 century BC taught his people to cultivate for fiber a plant of two forms called ma. China still produces ma, its name for hemp. Hemp was the first important cordage fiber because many fibers that carry the false name of 'hemp' are hard fibers and are quite different from the soft true hemp. Hemp grows throughout the Temperate Zones whenever the climate is warm and rainfall moderate. Unlike many other fibers, it has names in nearly every language. It is known as canamo in Spanish, canhamo in Portuguese, chanvre in French, canapa in Italian, hanf in German, hennup in Dutch, and kenevir in Turkish. Hemp is still mainly a cordage fiber, but its specific uses have hanged with changing conditions. It was once about the only cordage fiber in the civilized world and was the chief fiber for marine cordage until abaca came into use in the 19th century pg 233 larger ropes, fishing lines, yacht cordage, marlines, rigging, carpets, linen, nets, canvas, warp of carpeting material, a substitute for flax in some yarn sizes, cores for wire cables, and many kinds of twins for tying, seines, sacking, mattresses, upholstery, hats, alpargata (sandal) soles, bookbinding, and lashings. short fibers are also spun into yarns, and machine waste is used as stuffing for upholstered goods. The hemp plant also yields an oilseed. Various parts of the plant yield narcotic drugs, the major one being Maraihuana, derived from the flower. Hemp was native to central Asia and has long been cultivated in Persia (now Iran), China, and India for both the fiber and a drug...Many countries prohibit or severely restrict cultivation of the plant because of the strong narcotic substances. continues to tell the countries that produce: again mention Italian hemp is considered the best in quality covers cultivation
book Journal of the Arnold Arboretum MILLER, GENERA OF CANNABACEAE 1970 page 185 The Genera of the Cannabaceae in the Southeastern United States Norton G. Miller botanical description of the plant pg 186 more statistical data describing the plant Species of Cannabis and Humulus are wind-pollinated. Stigmata have been reported to be excerpted from the bracts and receptive 4.......A single inflorescence of Cannabis sativa has been estimated to produce more than 50 million pollen grains. Dispersal of Humulus Lupulus is reported to be facilitated by the adherence of the wing-like bracteole to the achene. At places in the midwestern United States Cannabis Sativa achenes have been found in the crops of mourning doves, which many have an active role in the local dispersal of this species. page 187 References 188 Key to the Genera of the Cannabaceae Scientific descriptions page 189 A genus of one (or perhaps more) species, originally indigenous to temperate parts of Asia, probably to the desert region immediately to the south and east of the Caspian Sea, but now occurring as an adventure or naturalized weed throughout most of the world. Cannabis sativa, a decided nitrophile that grows well in close association with man and his estates, is widespread in the United States and most frequently collected in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois. .....Cannabis sativa has been much used as an experimental plant. page 190 technical information: Three economically important products are obtained from Cannabis sativa. Perhaps least significant (except in Russia) is a drying oil produced from the fruits. The oil is used as a substitute for linseed oil in paints and varnishes and occasionally in soap making. After expressing, the oil, cake may be feed to cattle. In parts of eastern Europe and Russia and Asia, hemp "seeds" are eaten by humans, and in the United States Cannabis achenes are sold in seed mixtures prepared for cage-birds and outdoor bird feeders. At one time uneaten achenes from such mixtures were a major source of spontaneous hemp plants, but now the "seeds" are sold only after the embryos have been killed pg 191 tells of products made Hemp agriculture in the US first started on limited basis in New England, in 1632, with seeds brought to the colonies from England. In the 1800's, particularly during the midcentruy,
Book Commonwealth Economic Committee CEC Vegetable Oils and Oilseeds A Review of production, trade, utilization and prices relating to groundnuts, cotton seed, linseed, Soya beans, coconut and oil palm products, olive oil and other oilseeds and oils London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1967 Contents: Miscellaneous Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Hempseed pg 185 pg 189 "Hemp Seed: Hemp is extensively grown in Southern & Eastern Europe, but hemp seed production is now generally of little commercial importance. For example, production of seed in the Soviet Union, which exceeded 150,000 tons in 1940, had fallen to only 31,000 tons in 1959. Turkey is a producing country of moderate importance, its crop in 1963-64 page 190 being reported at 6,000 tons, and hemp is grown for seed in China, Taiwan and other countries in the Far East. Chile also produces seed but harvests in recent years have generally been below 5,000 tons. The trade in hemp seed is now very small; before the war, world exports averaged some 60,000 tons annually. Hemp seed oil is used mainly in paints, varnishes and certain kinds of soap in European countries, but is widely utilized for edible purposes in Asia. It is, however, believed that in recent years increasing quantities of hemp seed have been used in bird feeds, rather than processed for oil. pg 191 Has chemical analysis of tetrahydrocannobinol (THC) Methods of taking the drug vary somewhat from culture to culture. In the United States, marijuana is a mixture of the resin and various plant fragments, generally from the carpellate inflorescence, while hasish is a term restricted to the pure resin. Both forms are most often smoked. In India the resin may be eaten or drank in various carriers, especially milk. The work assassin, taken directly from the Arabic hashshashin, hemp eaters, entered the English language at the time of the Crusades. The hashshashins were a group of murders who were supposed, perhaps erroneously, to have carried out their missions, while intoxicated by hash. more technical terms. Forensic identification of marijuana is based on microscopic examination of the sample, in conjunction with one or several chemical tests applied to a petroleum-ether extract of the resin. The glandular and nonglandular hairs occurring on the upper and lower leaf surfaces, petioles, and bracts of the inflorescentces of both sexes are considered distinctive, especially when compared with an authenticated specimen. Since the cystoliths of Cannabis sativa are composed of calcium carbornate, addition of dilute hydrochloric acid will cause a slight effervescence, which is visible through a low-power microscope. References: page 193 References: Page 194 References page 195 References page 196 Humulus Linnaeus:...Type species: H. Lupulus L. (Late Latin name for this plant, from Old Slavic.) Hops page 197 more technical information about humulus linnaeus
Book: Cultural and Harvesting Methods for Kenaf Production Research Report No 113 An annual crop source of pulp in the southeast Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agricultural 1970 tells about plant, seeds, cultivating, harvesting, replacing paper source lots of data cultivated Manhattan, Kansas, April 25, 1962 This is a 37 page report