Tue, 30 Dec 1997 - MARIJUANA is for the BIRDS Outdoor Life June 1971 p.53 - Midwest game has gone to "pot" --for both cover and food. Problem: spraying could devastate game populations - by Joel M. Vance - UPLAND GAME IS GOING TO POT in the Midwest. And if hunters and conservationists are not careful, upland -game hunting could do the same. The pot that the game is going to is marijuana or wild hemp, often called "pot" by its high-flying advocates. It grows as a weed in many Midwestern States. Marijuana is classified as a dangerous plant by the federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, a subagency of the U.S. Department of Justice. Nine out of 10 hunters probably couldn't care less whether marijuana lives or dies. However, marijuana is one of the Midwest's most valuable cover plants for upland game, and some of the proposals for eradicating it could have terribly damaging effect on all other upland-game cover. - Gamebirds also feed on its seed, but the food aspect is less important than its value as cover.
Chemistry of Marihuana Coy W. Waller Volume 23, No. 4. Printed in USA Pharmacological Reviews Copyright 1971 by The Williams & Wilkins Co. Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi University, Mississippi page 265 shows the difference between synthetic THC (1940) and delta 9 trans- tetrahydrocannabinol, & delta 8 teahydrocannabinol page 266 Figure 2: Extract of Cannabis sativa L.: ---- Mexican; - - - - - - - Turkish The gas chromatography method of analysis had been published, so it became possible at the end of 1967 for the National Institute of Mental Health to formulate a rational program of marijuana research. page 267 The direct contract mechanism is being used primarily for the development of sufficient supplies of standardized materials both natural and synthetic; to conduct initial animal and human toxicity studies; to develop bioassay techniques; and to initiate high-priority studies of foreign populations where marijuana use has been present for many years. The bulk of the program is being conducted by means of research grants Table 1 Analysis of drug and hemp types of marijuana over three growing seasons comparing Drug-type marijuana analysis of Mexican, Thailand & Hemp type marijuana analysis Minnesota Turkish page 268 says confiscated marijuana is of unknown history and is often adulterated. they collected seeds grew crop and performed gas chromatogram on each: Figure 3 Figure 4 page 269 Analysis of marijuana is being done by gas chromatogrpahy which, when compared with standards, allows for the detection and quantitation of the cannabinoid compounds (1,2). Cannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) and related chemicals. The major ones in the plant are (Triangle - Delta) 9-THC, cannabidiol CBD and cannabinol CBN. The table 1 showing the analysis of representatives of drug and hemp types of marijuana over three growing seasons. Also the structures of the naturally occurring cannabinoids are in figures 3 to 8 page 270 more chemical graphs of analysis 271 The total synthesis of Delta 9 - THC with Olivetol and Menta 2, 8 dien 1 ol are presented in figures 9 and 10. A stepwise synthesis of the THC's was published by Petrzilka and Sikemeir (6-8); while Razdan et al. (9) telescoped these steps into one to obtain delta 8 THC and then converted it after purification through the chloro-compound to delta 9-THC. Both Delta 8 and delta 9 THC were purified through column chromatography and high vacuum distillation. Essentially pure synthetic delta 8 and delta 9 trans-tetrahydrocannabinols are now available to researchers from NIMH. The THC's though totally synthetic in origin are identical with the THC's which have been isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Pure delta 8 and delta 9 THC are thick, viscous oily materials at room temperature, and resinous solids when cold. They are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Though they are soluble in alcohol, they oil-out on diluting with water. Aqueous suspension can be made with TWeen 80. The solubility properties have created difficulties for the biologists. The specific rotation of pure delta 8 is 268 (c, 1.2% CHCl3) and delta 9 THC is 175 (c, 2% CHCl3)
Bulletin on Narcotics, Volume XXXIII, No 1, January-March 1971 page 29 Cannabinoid Constituents of Male and Female Cannabis Sativa by A. Ohlsson, CI Abou-chaar, S Agurell, IM Nilsson, K. Olofsson, & F. Sandberg. (on the bottom of this page is all the schools these persons are associated with. tells how they carried out their experiments and obtained their crop page 30 Table 1 : Retention Time (min) of cannabinoids Table II Content of cannabinoids of fresh male and female Cannabis: Countries: Beirut, Bekaa, Hizzine, Caurcasus-Sweeden, Turkey, Bratislava, Morocco, page 31 Results and discussion The results of the analyses of fresh Cannabis materials are presented in table II and figures 1-2. Our dada show that cannabinoids are present in all parts of the plants. Calculated on dry weight, the cannabinoids are most abundant in flowering tops and the young, small leaves surrounding the flowers. Analysis of different parts of the plant suggest that there is usually little variation in the relative amounts of cannabidiol delta 1 tetrahydrocannabinol although we have encountered some minor deviations (figure 1), mainly in cannabinoid content of stem and large leaves. A comparison (table II) between male and female Cannabis shows that both sexes contain roughly similar amounts of cannabinoids in similar ratios. Unpublished date (15 on Cannabis grown in Mississippi, USA are in general agreement with this conclusion. Our GLC date of the nine investigated samples further shows that fresh cannabis material contains essentially no cannabinol (<1% of the total amount of cannabinoids) indicating that the compound, known to be present in large amounts in old cannabis samples, may entirely be an artifact. None of the two samples (Hizzine, Morocco\Sweden) rich in delta 1 thtrahydrocannabinol contained detectable amounts of delta 6 tetrahydrocannabinol (<1-2% delta THC content). The samples Morocco\Sweden and Unknown\Sweden show that it is possible to grow in Sweden marijuana page 32 rich in the psychotomimetically active delta 1 tetrahydrocannabinol, provided one has the proper seed material. Thus seeds of a "delta 1 tetrahydrocannabinol producing Cannabis strain" can produce delta 1 - tetrahydrocannabinol in cooler (Sweden) as well as warmer (Morocco) climates. The plausible implication of this fact is, that the type of cannabinoid produced by the plant is dependent upon the inherited properties of the seed and that the influence of the climate is limited. Knowing that "good marijuana quality" Cannabis seeds have been shipped from one country to another, and will continue to do so, for illegal cultivation, and considering the point just made above, it is evident, and that there is no valid basis for attempts to correlate the cannabinoid content with country of origin for a cannabis sample. It is also evident (figure 2) that in nature there is a variety of "chemotypes" of C. sativa from one extreme, producing almost exclusively cannabidiol, over intermediate forms, to forms producing predominantly delta 1 tetrahydrocannabinol. This study was supported by the Swedish Medical Research Council.
Book Economic Botany 27: 193 203. April-June 1973 Haney and Kutscheid: Chemical Constituents of Marijuana "Quantitative Variation in the Chemical Constituents of Marijuana from Strands of Naturalized Cannabis Sativa L. in East-Central Illinois by Alan Haney & Benjamin B. Kutscheid page 193 Cannabis apparently was grown in New England as early as 1629 (3) The species was introduced to Mexico probably much earlier, but there is no evidence that it was spread north. In North America, the plant grows from Quebec to British Columbia in Canada and south throughout United States and Mexico. Based on botanical collections, Haney and Bazzaz (12) concluded that naturalized Cannabis was commonly in the upper midwest where it is established widely. Isolated by persistent populations have been reported east of Indiana, but rarely south of Kentucky and Virginia or west of Kansas and Nebraska. Commercial fiber production from hemp was established in Virginia, soon after introduction in New England, and in Kentucky by 1775. Dewey (7) reported that the original source of cannabis in this country was Europe, but Kentucky plantings largely were based on Chinese stock. From Kentucky, hemp was introduced into Missouri (1835). Illinois (1875), Nebraska (1887) and California (1912), and subsequently, into most other states (7). During this time, selection of superior fiber producing plants let to development of several cultivars (8) Consequently, the genetic base was different for many of the naturalized populations persisting today. Although abuse of the plant for drug, paucity of labor for fiber production and development of competitive fibers let to the discontinuation of hemp cultivation in US by 1955, the species escaped and became well established in waste areas. Naturalized populations of hemp were common in eastern United States by 1832. ...Marijuana remained in the US Pharmacopoeia until 194 1937 (11) After World War I, use of marijuana as an intoxicant became more prevalent in United States (18), but little attention was given to naturalized populations until widespread use of this source became a problem. It generally has been accepted that hemp grown in United States yields less drug and, therefore, is an inferior source of marijuana. Marijuana smuggled into United States from Mexico, Jamaica, and other warm climate regions was more common on the black market and brought a higher price. As use of marijuana increased, illicit collection of local plants increased and government officials became more concerned with these naturalized populations. but it was not until Gaoni and Mechaulam (9) isolated and tested delta 1- tetrahydrocannobinol (THC) that the psychotomimetical activity of marijuana was traced to a single compound. This constituent is now believed to be the major active substance in marijuana although the isomer, delta 1 (G) = THC, also is active but usually is present in very low concentrations, often less than one percent of delta 1 - THC Methods Champaign County Illinois page 195 tells how they planted, collected the plants, dried, collected tops for drug testing for Delta 1 (g) - THC, Delta 1 - THC, cannabinol and cannabidiol, All analysis were made within four months after collection under common, standard conditions in the same laboratory under auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health. Data for each cannabinoid include the neutral and acidic material. page 196 Results: The chemical constituents in marijuana of particular interest here are delta 1 (G) - THC, delta 1 - THC, cannibinol, and cannibidiol, was calculated and statistically examined in the same manner. The means, ranges and standard deviations for these data are presented in Table 3. Seventy-nine percent of the variance multiple correlation + 0.8941) in the delta 1 (G) - THC content of marijuana samples page 197 was accounted for with the nine parameters listed in Table 4. The F level for the last variable entered was highly significant (P<0.01). The standard error of the estimated delta 1 (G) - THC content was 0.0813. The depent variable intercept was 0.2390. The effects of the important independent variables on content of delta 1 (G) THC in the marijuana samples are shown in Fig. 1. Soil disturbance was used as the third parameter in the Figure because the effect of cation exchange capacity was masked by the sand-nitrogen interaction. Based on the data in Fig. 1, potassium seems to be interacted with the sand-nitrogen interaction. page 198 more of the statistical data accounts for fertilizers and soil page 199 Discussion It is obvious from the statistical analyses that a few key independent variables would account for most of the variance observed in the dependent variables. Attempt to eliminate overlapping site parameters in order to gain sensitivity in the multiple correlation analysis resulted in small decreases in the correlation coefficients. The data in Table 3 demonstrate extreme variation in the amount of drug produced among the strands we examined. This variation also was present in growth, seed production and other plant parameters which was discussed in a separate paper. Most of the drug variation was attributed to combinations of environmental parameters. Although there was no way in this study to examine genetic control of drug production, we considered the following facts and observations. The origin of most of the naturalized populations of hemp in east central Illinois could be traced directly to the crops grown in the immediate vicinity during WWII, and occasionally, as long ago as the first of the Century. Wild hemp spreads very slowly, except along drainage channels. Seeds used for crops generally were page 200 more tests results in Tables produced by the government for genetic strains developed especially for fiber production. This propagation surely led to reduction in genetic heterogeneity. Because the flowers are wind pollinated and plants grow annually from seeds, genes are rapidly distributed within populations, thus maintaining a more homogeneous genetic base. Therefore, it seems unlikely that much of the extreme variation observed within our populations could be attributed to genetic variation. page 201 Our results suggest that delta 1 - THC production in plants of our study area almost completely was under environmental control. The genotype ratio constituents may be more genetically than environmentally determined, although it is possible that this ratio merely is too complex to predict by our simplified approach. We can make no conclusions from our data about the value of this ratio. The production of other drug constituents seem to be under more or less genetic control, but further research is needed. The ratio of delta 1 (G) - THC to delta 1 - THC in our material was much higher, on the average, than we expected based on reports of other investigators (15). page 202 Soil nutrients, specifically potassium, phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen, were important environmental parameters affecting drug content of marijuana. Interactions of these factors were common. Although we tested only first-order interactions, second-order and higher interactions probably occurred. Interactions are suggested in Figs. 1 and 2. Potassium consistently was negatively correlated to the content of the drug compounds examined. Potassium as not independently related to any parameter except drug content of female hemp plants. The interaction of potassium with phosphorous, however, was correlated with most dependent parameters examined except cannabidiol content. In most cases, this interaction also was negatively correlated to dependent variables. The notable exceptions were with delta 1 (G) - THC and delta 1 - THC. Why these nutrients were negatively related to the plant growth is obscure. Certainly, the levels of these nutrients did not seem to be excessively high in the soils of our stands. This relationship is being tested under controlled conditions to ascertain the validity of the response. The data on biomass of competing forbs and grasses established another interesting relationship. Increased competition by forbs led to higher levels of delta 1 (G) - THC, delta 1-THC, and cannabidiol, whereas competition from grasses significantly enhanced cannabidiol content. Competing grasses and forbs resulted in smaller hemp plants with disproportionately smaller roots. With few exceptions, these data suggest that drug production is enhanced under stressed conditions, whether stress originated from nutrient imbalances, competition with other plants, or low moisture availability. The latter is suggested by the positive correlation between cannabidiol and the square of the slope. Stress from shading, however, was not correlated to drug content. Krejci (14) reported a similar response in the production of antibiotic substances in hemp in Czechoslovakia. These substances, which, structurally are very similar to the cannabinoids, were produced in greater abundance on a site of lower fertility by plants that were smaller and less vigorous. There are exceptions in our data to the above generalization. For example, nitrogen, when significantly related, wa positively correlated. The potassium phosphorous interaction was positively correlated to content of delta 1 (G) - THC and delta 1 - THC . Calcium was related to delta 1 - THC and cannabidiol content in a positive manner. Additional studies are needed under controlled conditions to explain many of these preliminary observations. The significant correlation's between delta 1 (G) - THC and cannabidiol and delta 1 - THC and cannabinol may have implications for the biogenesis or degradation of these compounds. At least these correlations suggest that similar conditions affect the production of the compounds within each group or that oxidation during storage leads from on to another. It is established, for example, that on long exposure of delta 1 - THC to air, cannabinol is formed. Conclusions Data from 101 naturalized stands of Cannabis in east- central Illinois indicate that production of delta 1 (G) - THC, delta 1 - THC, cannabinol and cannabidiol was determined, to a large extent, by environmental conditions of the site where plants are grown. It is assumed that these stands represented a relatively homogeneous genetic population. Delta 1 - THC was under the strongest environmental control. In general, content of these compounds was higher in marijuana from stands where plants were stressed. Two types of stress were suggested by the data: nutrient deficiency and inadequate moisture. Competition from other plants enhanced the content of the drug compounds, and this relationship strengthens the stress hypothesis. Work is underway to confirm this relationship. page 203 Literature Cited
Book: Economic Botany 28: 304 - 310. July - September, 1974: Emboden: Cannabis - A polytypic Genus by William A. Emboden, Senior Curator of Botany, Natural History Museum, LA County, LA, California: Submitted for publication May 28, 1974 CANNABIS - A POLYTYPIC GENUS page 304 rather lengthy description of Cannabis and its historical plotting page 305 "who points out that, in the Species Plantarum of Linnaeus (1753) the published description is in accord with the earlier work of Linnaeus Hortus Cliffortianus (1738)... give Latin description "Schultes et al. (1974) make an important distinction between Cannabis that is truly wild (only in areas where it is native), weedy (having escaped cultivation), and cultivated (under domestication by man for one or more reasons), and they point out the importance of this distinction in the cases of other domesticated plants. Perhaps one thousand years of man-made selection combined with many thousands of years of natural selection has led to an enormous complexity in the tendency to vary. These factors, coupled with hybridization and introgression, make it impossible to easily to ascertain species by disjunct variation when a multitude of species, their variants, and hybrids are grown under cultivation. What is important, however, is the ability to recognize wild, cultivated and weedy forms, to be aware of the historical context of the taxonomic treatment and their geographical distributions. The polytypic concent of Cannabis dates to 1783 when landmark published an account of C. indica in his Encyclopedia (Volume I) and fully contrasted it with the account of C. sativa Linnaeus, an account of which Lamarck, of course, was well aware. His information of C. indica was provided by the meticulous collector Sonnerat. The account is as follows: (au Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de Lamarck, in Volume 1 (Encyclopedique de botanique, 1783, page 695) presents us with the original descritption of Cannabis indica and recounts the synonymy to that date: page 306 tells the botantical differences between cannabis that you smoke and cannabis for fiber ...it might be noted also that in the US Cannabis sativa achieves heights of 18 to 20 feet in river deltas, whereas C. indica rarely exceeds four feet under any circumstances of cultivation, even in the lush, fertilized soils of Mississippi. There has been much controversy over the nature of fixed variability and species in the genus Cannabis. Some botanists have ignored the tremendous geographical variation in the wild state (partly because so little is known of wild Cannabis) and have treated the entire genus as a single species. Such a simplistic approach reduces to synonymy those species now recognized as valid in Europe and Russia and by botanists in the United States who page 307 have had the opportunity to study the enormous variability in sundry areas of the world. chromosomes differences page 308 discussions of all the plants in all the world, and what makes one different to the other. page 309 A more thorough reassessment of this genus is needed, but, at this time, a preliminary report such as the above is advisable to elicit recognition of these three species, two of which are found growing as cultigens in the United States: C. sativa as a ruderal remnant from the once extensive hemp industry which dates to the 18th Century in the United States Such a dense woody nabit was characteristic of those species of Cannabis undoubtedly C. sativa) found growing in ancient China and from which the Chinese were able to carve heavy wooden canes. British were aware of several species when, in the 1930's, they formulated legislation against the genus Cannabis not directed toward any one of its component species but including "any species of Cannabis." page 310 Izmir, Turkey, 1973 noted that Cannabis grown in this area was much dwarfed at maturity and densely branched at the base when grown under cultivation (presumably for the resin content rather than for fiber). The seed was smaller than that of C. staiva, heavily marbled, often dark. The compact inflorescence produced considerable quantities of a sticky resin and, at maturity, the seed fell from the plant. In no way was the plant comparable in habit to those weedy forms of C. sativa found throughout midwestern and southern United States, where they achieve a height of 20 feet at maturity and are so laxly branched as superficially to resemble bamboo. The latter are escapes of C. sativa brought to the United States in the 18th Century as a fibre crop. In C. staiva, the leaves are Literature Cited
Notice: This material may be protected by copyright law (Title 17 US Code). Apercu De La Production De Chanvre En France page 1263-1293 in French 1264-1265 In French 1266-1267 has map of cultivation for fiber in France 1268-1270 all in French
Economic Botany 29: 153 - 163, April - June, 1975 SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN CANNABINOID CONTENT OF KANSAS MARIJUANA by R.P. Latta & B. J. Eaton Contribution No. 1309. Depart of Agronomy, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, Submitted for publication December, 22, 1972 Riley County, Kansas Environmental stress apparently increased Delta 9 THC concentrartion, and bivatent ions.... Fetterman and co workers (8), who analyzed marijuana from two states and five foreign countries, found a wide range of potency: they noted that growing progeny of those plants under a different environment (in Mississippi) did not alter potency. Similar results were obtained by Ohlsson and co-workers (19), indicating that potency is genetically controlled and that environmental inputs are secondary. Haney et al, (13) found that cannabinoid content of plants grown in Illinois increased with environmental stress (moisture stress, nutrient imbalances, and competition with other plants ); the relative potency of those plants, however, was much lower that those of foreign origin (8). Krejei (14), in studies with antibiotic cannabinoids in page 154 This study was conducted to detect seasonal fluctuations in cannabinoid content of wild marijuana in Kansas and to determine whether environmental inputs affect cannabinoid production. page 155 how the Cannabinoid Extraction were made. Page 156 graphs` page 157 graphs page 158 The major hallucinogen, delta 9 - THC, OCCURRED IN ALL PLANT PARTS AND RANGED FROM 0.0001 TO 0.06% OF PLANT MATTER (FIG 1B) IN THE TIME STUDY except that delta 9 TCH fluctuations came about two weeks later than those of CBD. and had the lowest concentration (0.004%) in mid March and the highest (0.046%) in early July. Delta -8-THC and CBN occurred in approximately the same range of concentration (0.00005 to 0.0064%), which was about a tenth that of delta 9 THC and about one-hundredth that of CBD. Delta 8-THC (Fig 1c) varied more than did CBN (Fig. 1d), and both varied most late in the growing season. Delta 9 THC, lowest (0.0004%) in mid May, climbed to its highest level (0.006%) in early August. CBN was lowest (0.001%) in late April, highest (0.0065%) in late July which was about two weeks after delta 9 THC had reached its highest concentration. page 159 TABLE II FIFTEEN INDEPENDENT VARIABLES EXAMINED BY MULTIPLE REGRESSION FOR PLANTS SAMPLED ON 11 DATES AND IN NINE PROGRESSIVE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT FROM ONE LOCATION IN RILEY COUNTY, KANSAS, 1971 Time Study: Stage of plant development Plant density Plant height Root length Fresh weight Dry weight Root weight Stem weight Leaf weight Plant manganese Plant zinc Plant iron Plant copper Plant magnesium Plant calcium page 160 tells about the variances and acknowledges that "Root weight or length was correlated with each annabinoid tested. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc are known to affect root growth. Deficiency of these nutrients can suppress root development, zinc showing the most suppressing effect (20). Nitrogen deficiency generally reduces root branching but stimulates elongation (4) Phosphorus affects root growth more indirectly by reducing top growth; less carbohydrate is photosynthesized, which reduces root growth (18, 22)., Hence nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc (along with other factors affecting root growth) could influence cannabinoid biosynthesis. Marijuana sampled from 10 locations, having a wide range of ecological and edaphic characteristics, illustrates cannabinoid variability in Riley County (Table III). These data placed the cannabinoid concentration of time study (Fig. 1) in perspective with cannabinoid content of marijuana found throughout the county (Table III). Location four, the ninth sampling date in the time study, ranked lowest in CBD, ninth in delta 9 THC, lowest in delta 8 - THC, and ninth in CBN when compared to the other 9 locations. By random chance, we extensively studied the location where plants were among the lowest in cannabinoid concentration (fig 1) page 161 Magnesium and iron content in leaf tissue were positively and significantly correlated with delta 8 THC in the location study. - manganese "Researchers generally agree that marijuana falls into two categories: (1) drug types and (2) non-drug types (8,13). Ratios of various cannabinoids proposed to chemically segregate drug types, indicate marijuana in these experiments were of the non-drug type. Marijuana high in CBD and low in THC is characteristic of the non-drug type; the drug type is low in CBD, high in THC. The difference may be doe to the efficiency of the drug type to convert CBD to THC> Enzyme systems in the drug type may convert CBD to delta 9 THC, but such systems may not be present (or operative at low efficiency) in non-drug types. Higher drug content in replication three in the time study could indicate that factors in that replication were conducive for the operation of an enzyme system. Conclusions: Seasonal changes observed in cannabinoids indicate CBD is transformed to delta 9 THC to CBN. Data suggest that stress may influence cannabinoid production and bivalent ions may regulate enzyme systems responsible for cannabinoid synthesis. Seasonal variability of cannabinoids in plants was observed in Riley County. Potential cannabinoid content of marijuana appears to be genetically controlled, but the level of expression may be regulated by environmental factors regulating plant growth, and development. Marijuana growing wild in Kansas is low in potency. Midwestern marijuana, descended from varieties cultivated for fiber and cannabinoid level, apparently has remained unchanged by natural selection. page 162-163 Literature Cited
Taxon Volume 25 August 1976 Practical and Natural Taxonomy for Cannabis by Ernest Small, Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, & Arthur Conquist, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY, 10458 The present pattern of variation is due in large part to the influence of man. Two widespread classes of plant are discernible: a group of generally northern plants of relatively limited intoxicant potential, influenced particularly by selection for fibre and oil agronomic qualities, and a group of generally southern plants of considerable intoxicant potential, influenced particularly by selection of inebriant qualities. These two groups are treated respectively as subsp. sativa and indica, of C sativa, the only species of the genus Cannabis. Within each subspecies two parallel phases are recognizable. The "wild" (weedy, naturalized or indigenous) phase is more of less distinguishable from the domesticated (cultivated or spontaneous) phase by means of an adaptive syndrome of fruit characteristics. The resulting four discernible groups are recognized as varieties. page 406 It is clear that Cannabis was absent from the New World until about 1545 (Small et al., 1975) *** I disagree, the strip that comes through Kansas.*** Variation within the genus Cannabis is continuous for all characters and sets of characters that have been investigated in any detail. The variation, although continuous, is not unimodal. It is bimodal with regard to one set of characters that relate to domestication as opposed to growth in the wild. It is also biomodal with regard to another set of characters that relate to the purpose for which the plant has been cultivated: Fibre (and to some extent oil) on the one hand, and psychoactive drugs on the other. These two independent biomodalities intersect so that four syndromes of more or less closely associated characteristics can be recognized within the genus (fig 6). page 407 In our opinion the key to comprehension of variation in Cannabis and the toxonomic literature about it, is found in three interacting processes: (a) conscious selection by man for trails of agronomic value, principally for fibre or drug content, coupled with conscious and unconscious selection for fruit characteristics; (b) continuous genetic interchange between plants growing under, and outside of cultivation, by means of domestication of wild populations, escape from domestication, and hybridization between wild and domesticated plants, facilitated by wind pollination; (c) selection by the environment, at the morphological level particularly for adaptive fruit characteristics. more scientific information about Cannabis page 408 Honma et al. (1971) made similar observations on Cannabis grown in Japan, and noted that resin content decreases on withering. Once the plants are harvested, oxidative changes occur slowly, changing the composition of the resin (Turner et al., 1973 a; cf. Coffman and Gentner, 1974). In particular, THC concentration decreases, and the concentration of the non-intoxicant cannabinoid, cannabinol, increases. It has been shown that two widespread classes of plants can be discerned with respect to intoxicant properties. Plants origin are characterized by (a)... page 409 talks about the differences of the higher grades of smokable pot*** Clearly Lamarck had in mind fibre and oil cultivars in his conception of C. sativa, and inebriant cultivars in his conception of C. indica. The tallness, lack of branching, hollowness of stem, and nature of bast are all agricultural features of fibre cultivars, maximizing quality, length, and obtainability; the absence of these features in inebriant cultivars simply reflects the different selective history of such page 410 talks about confusion between two plants during original studies. page 411 discusses more variables & the forensic debate - The Distinction between "Wild" and "Domesticated", and Taxonomic Delimitation page 412 Cannabis clearly belongs to the third situation. Cannabis is one of the most ancient of cultivated crops, and has been domesticated for perhaps as long as 8500 years (Schultes, 1969;). Although it has been speculated that Cannabis is indigenous in central Asia, there is no agreement on even an approximate location. (Schultes, 1970.) There are good reasons why one would not expect to find unaltered extant Anlagen of domesticated cannabis. Cannabis has been observed to form spontaneous populations wherever it is grown, and weedy biotypes are extensively established throughout the world. The wind pollination of plants such as Cannabis facilitates long-distance genetic interchange. Win- pollinated plants with pollen grains the size of Cannabis (about 25" in diameter) can effectively disperse pollen for hundreds of miles (e.g. Erdtman, 1937; Sack, 1949). Significantly, Cannabis produces pollen copiously. Further, all studies of interfertility reported in Cannabis to the present indicate absence of sterility barriers between wild and domesticated populations . Given the possibilities of long distance hybridization, dispersal and establishment, and the long-continued modification and distribution of Cannabis by man, we believe it is unlikely that one could find unaltered aboriginal populations. Even if relatively unaltered aboriginal genotypes are still extant, there are presently no non-cicular means of identifying these, since we simply cannot establish whether a given variant occupying a discrete geographical range represents aboriginal material, or is the partial consequence of domestication (note particularly the numerous variants with discrete distribution ranges described by Nikiforov, 1963). Just as selection either for fibre and oil attributes, or for drug properties, has resulted in the evolution of kinds of plants, so the different selective regimes under cultivation and in the wild may be expected to result in kinds of plant. page 413 He noted that the interior of the somewhat elongated base of the fruit of wild plants (which he interpreted as being part of the receptacle), is characterized by oily cells, and he found some evidence for a mutualistic relationship with the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus L., which fed on this basal issue and distributed the achenes. page 414 pictures of different seeds of different cannabis sativa strains page 415 talking about seeds and why wild seeds have a special stripe that seems to make them break open easier " Although Cannabis is still widely cultivated for intoxicant properties in southern countries, the increasing condemnation of it has led to less intensive continued selection, and, on the whole, intoxicant cultivars are not as fully domesticated as are fibre cultivatars. page 416 We interpred the domesticated fruit syndrome in plants collected outside of cultivation as indicating recent escapes from domestication, and we interpret the transitional stages as reflective of various degrees of progressive adaptation (or re- adaptation) to exclusively wild existence. these interpretations are speculative, but are not unreasonably so. In conformity with Vavilov's observation (1926) that the spectrum of variants found in nature for the northern races represents continuous, transitional variation, Small (1975 a) found the same situation applies to the southern, intoxicant races. Limitations of Taxonomic Value of Some Characters page 417 Taxonomic Philosophy and Cultivated Plants. page 418 We do not advocate the use of the "conspecies" category as discussed by Zhukovsky (1967). We believe that the recognition of "species" within this category by Serebriakova and Sizov and the general "degradation of rank" characterizing early Soviet plant taxonomy, have led to fundamental misunderstanding during the forensic debate involving the taxonomy of Cannabis. Formal Treatment: Our taxonomic treatment of Cannabis consists of a hierarchic recognition first of the two widespread groups based on agronomic properties, and second of a "wild" and domesticated phase within each. We could have inverted the hierarchy, and made the primary grouping on the basis of adaptation to growth in cultivation or in the wild, but we chose not to do so, for the reasons indicated below: Genetic exchanges between cultivated and uncultivated populations occur wherever Cannabis has been cultivated for any considerable length of time. This interaction has been documented with regard to the fibre races and their wild or feral correlatives. Similar interchange between drug races and their wild or feral correlatives also appears to be extensive. On the other hand, such interaction between drug and fiber races is more restricted because of geographical separation, occurring chiefly where both sorts are (or have been) cultivated in proximity. Thus on the basis of the amount of genetic exchange, it seems advisable to make the primary infraspecific grouping in accord with what the plants have been cultivated for, and the secondary one in accord with whether the plants are adapted to growth in the wild or in cultivation. Fortunately, this arrangement is also in harmony with social needs and significance. The distinction between drug and fibre races is much the more important to society. page 419 Key to Subspecies and Varieties of Cannabis sativa L. page 420 has picture of plant page 421 Has Bibliography page 422 Plants of C. sativa var. sativa have been domesticated for fibre and\or oil. Fibre cultivars are usually taller than 3 m ... Representative Specimens Kansas: Riley Co., Norton 493 (GH, US); Whiskey Lake, Geary Co., Gates 98701 (NY): Lawrence, Hor E 229. Page 422 & 423 show all the states and countries all over the world where samples were taken in August of 1976 for the Taxon study. ***You will want to look at this again*** page 424 picture Scientists names page 425 This taxon includes indigenous or well-established weedy or naturalized plants which are either substantially unmodified by domestication represent biotypes which have undergone considerable re- domestication. This group is highly variable vegetatively, and is common where Cannabis has been cultivated and\or domesticated for fibre and\oil properties, notably in North America, Europe, and northern Asia. Representative Specimens Page 426 more regions were specimens were collected ....Such specimens are especially common in the United States at present, where Cannabis was widely cultivated up to and including the early part of this century. with renewed cultivation stimulated by fibre shortage during the second World War....and re-acquiring the fruit characteristics of wild plants... page 427 picture page 428 Plants of C. sativa subsp. indica have considerable intoxicant potential. Plants of this taxon are typically from areas of south of latitude 30o N. (approximately), and are extremely common in southern Asia, Africa, frequent in central and South America, and relatively infrequent elsewhere. They are phenologically adapted to a relatively long period of vegetative growth before short day-length induces sexual maturity. page 429 C. Sativa subsp. Indica var. Karifistanica Southern Asia, Africa, Mexico, Central & South America page 430 picture acknowledgments page 431 References page 432 references page 433 references page 434 references page 435 references
Volume XLVII 1978 ACTA SOCIETATIS BOTANICORUM POLONIAE Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Botanicznego Volume LVII Warszawa 1978 Polonia page 153 The hormonal control of sex differentiation in dioecious plants of hemp (Canabis sativa The influence of plant growth regulators on sex expression in male and female plants Elzbieta Galoch Biological Institute, Copernicus University, Torun, Poland Received : February 27, 1978 page 154 ...the total number of flowers per plant and the percentage of flowers indicating sex reversion and the bisexual ones were recorded.` page 155 Results & Discussion: The obtained results point to the existence of distinct dependencies between the applied growth regulators and sex expression in dioecious hemp.....Graph.....Fig. 1: Effect of plant growth regulators on flower sex expression in male plants of Cannabis sativa page 156 technical data page 157 more technical data, all directed toward sex determination page 158 Fig. 3 Effect of plant growth regulators on flower sex expression in female plants of Cannabis Sativa total number of flowers\plant - % of male flowers. page 159 more data page 160 references page 161 references page 162 Author's address
page 116 Plantes, medicinales et phytotherapie 1979, Tome XIII, no 2, p 116-121 In French
Tappi Journal March 1980 Volume 63, No 3 page 109 - 110 Laboratory paper machine runs with kneaf thermomechanical pulp
September 1989 Tappi Journal Nonwood Pulp Preparation of kenaf bark and core fibers for pulping by the Ankal method page 137 - 140 The formula for making paper from kenaf.
Economic Botany, 37 (4), 1983, by the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY, 10458 Possible Role of Ultraviolet Radiation in Evolution of Cannanic Chemotypes, by David W. Pate, Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, Received for publication March 20, 1981; accepted 20 January 1983 The damaging effects of UV-B radiation have apparently affected the amounts of ultraviolet-absorbing secondary compounds in some plants. A similar role for delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol may explain the high levels of this compound in Cannabis from areas of intense ambient UV-B. Further research is needed to determine whether UV-B radiation serves only as a selection pressure or if UV-B induced stress may also directly stimulate production. page 197 Ultraviolet radiation interferes with cellular reproduction and metabolism through its damaging effects on nucleic acids and proteins. Although peak nucleic acid absorption of UV is at approximately 260nm, there is substantial UVB absorbance by nucleic acids in the 290-315 nm portion of the band occurring at terrestrial levels (Rupert, 1967). The 280 nm absorbance peak that proteins exhibit is closer to the limit of terrestrial shortwave exposure, making them even more susceptible to damage in nature. Damage can also result through a nucleic acid\protein interaction. How Some Plants Cope With UV-B Proposed Hypothetical Model: Interest in the possible role of ultraviolet radiation as a selection pressure in the evolution of Cannabis chemotype was piqued by the casual observation that the sum- drenched areas growing the most potent Cannabis were populated by native peoples of the darkest complexions. This same UV-B pressure on plants page 398 UV-B Radiation Levels and Cannabinoid Content page 399 UV-B Radiation Levels and Cannabinoid Content: Cannabis for drug production has traditionally been grown in high altitude regions of the world. Part of the reason for this is undoubtedly political since detection and sanction of growers is more difficult in rugged terrains. However, this cannot be the entire case, since Cannabis raised at the higher altitude demands a higher price that raised at a lower altitude of the same area. Altitude effects have been attributed to water deprivation, but this alone cannot account for the considerable delta 9 THC content of plants growing in moist, low- altitude, tropical regions. In Lebanon, it has been observed that "hemp cultivated in the plains gradually loses the property of supplying active resin" This altitude effect is echoed in the experience of Bergel: page 400 Bouquet relates that latitude decreases can result in a natural selection for increased production. To illustrate this point further he continues page 401 more scientific data page 402 Conclusions Page 403 graph pg 404 Acknowledgments Literature Cited Page 405 more literature cited
UV-B RADIATION EFFECT ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS, GROWTH AND CANNABINOID PRODUCTION OF TWO Cannabis stavic CHEMOTYPES: by John Lyndon, USDA-ARS, Southern Weed Science Laboratory, P. O. Box 350, Stoneville, MS, 38776, USA: Alan H. Teramura, Department of Botany, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA., & C. Benjamin Coffman, USDA-ARS, Weed Science Laboratory, AEQ, I, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA: Received August 29, 1986, accepted February 24, 1987: page 201 Although the mechanism is unknown, a relationship exists between cannabinoid content and the attitude altitude at which C. sativa is grown. Mobark et al., (1978) suggested that the high-altitude environment was responsible for an increased population of propyl cannabinoids in plants grown in 1300m. The average total cannabinoid content of wild, mature (flowering) Indian C. sativa from elevations between 250m and 1000m was 2.43% (by dry weight); between 1000 m and 2000m was 3.01%; and above 2000m Was 1.39% (Turner et al., 1979). The cannabinoid content in four out of five of these mature Indian C. sativa variants decreased when grown at sea level in Mississippi, USA. One likely factor which may be of significance to cannabinoid production in both high-altitude and tropical environments is ultraviolet radiation. page 202 Pate (1983) reported that C. sativa populations originating from high UV-B environment contained little or no cannabidiol (CBD) but high levels of delta 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9 - THC), while the opposite was true for population from low UV-B environments, and proposed that the two distinct C. sativa chemotypes (drug and fiber) evolved as a result of selective pressures brought about by UV-B radiation. Fairbairn and Liebmann (1974) reported that the delta 9 - THC content of leaf tissue from UV irradiated greenhouse-grown drug-type C. sativa was 23% greater than non- irradiated greenhouse-grown plants. However, neither the spectral distribution nor the daily dose of UV radiation . The objectives of this study were to test (a) The physiological and morphological insensitivity of both the drug and fiber types of C. sativa to UV-B radiation; and (b) to correlate this insensitivity with a change in production of delta 9 - THC or CBD in drug and fiber type plants, respectively. Material and Methods Page 203 Results....Only the delta 9 THC content in leaf and floral tissues of drug type plants increased significantly with UV-B radiation. page 204 Discussion page 205 The results presented here indicate that both types of vegetative C. sativa are physiologically and morphologically insensitive to UV-B radiation. The increased level of delta 9 - THC found in leaf tissues upon UV-B irritation may account for this insensitivity on the drug type plants. However, fiber-type plants showed no comparable change in the level of CBD which has similar UV-B absorption characteristics). Thus, the contribution of cannabinoids to the UV-B insensitivity in vegetative C. sativa is equivocal. Perhaps the background levels of CBD present in the fiber-type tissues were sufficient to protect the plant from UV-B radiation. Alternatively, other UV-B absorbing compounds such as flavonoids may account for this UV-B insensitivity. Flavonoids are the principle pigments associated with UV radiation greening in plants . Barrett et al (1985) reported the concentration of Cannflavin A (a flavonoid from C. sative) was similar in drug and fiber type leaf tissue, whereas Gellert et al (1974) reported relatively more flavonoids in drug than fiber type plants. Whether the quality and quantity of flavonoids in leaf tissues of the chemotypes in this study were sufficient to account for observed UV-B insensitivity was not determined. It should be pointed out, however that one should be cautions when extrapolating from greenhouse to field conditions in UV-B studies. In addition, when considering the distribution of C. sativa, one cannot overlook the fact that it is one of the oldest cultivated plants known to man. Thus, its present distribution may possibly be an artifact of man's cultural practices. In conclusion, the delta 9 THC content in leaf and floral tissues of greenhouse grown drug-type C. sativa increased linerarly with UV-B dose. Other cannabinoids in drug and fiber-type plants were unaffected by UV-B radiation. Both drug and fiber chemotypes were physiologically and morphologically tolerant to UV-B radiation. page 206 References
CANNABINOID OCCURRENCE IN SEEDLINGS OF CANNABIS SATIVA L: QUANTITATION IN SEEDLINGS OF KNOWN AGE AND PRIMARY LEAF LENGTH by Jet propulsion Laboratory MS 183-501, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91109; and Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 47405 Manuscript received November 1986; revised manuscript April 1987 Botantical Gazette 148 (3) : 468-474. 1987 @1987 by the University of Chicago. All rights reserved 0006-8071\87\4804-0006$02.00 Introduction Since cannabinoids are known to be absent from the mature embryo, the developing seedling can be utilized for examination of the sequence of appearance of detectable cannabinoids in the growing plant. page 469 Table 1: Mean Cannabinoid Content of Light-Grown Cannabis Seedlings Separated by Age and Primary Leaf Length page 470 Table 2: Mean Cannabinoid Content of Dark-Grown Cannabis Seedlings Separated by Age and Primary Leaf Length High Performance Liquid (HPLC) and Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) Analyses were performed on a Hewlett-Packard 1084 B liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a Hewlett-Packard 5710A gas chromatography (GLC). The HPLC was equipped with a variable-wavelength UV detector set at 277 nm. The different reversed plase columns were used: an Altex C-8 or a Whatman C-18. Very young seedling samples contained an oily substance, probably a storage product from cotyledons, that interfered with reproducibility of cannabinoid analyses by GLC. Analyses of cannabinoids by HPLC were unaffected by oily residues in samples. Decarboxylation Statistical Analysis page 471 Results: Seedling Morphology Temporal Occurrence of Cannabinoids No cannabinoids were detected in ungerminated seeds or in 48-50 h or younger seedlings grown in either light or total darkness (talkes 1, 2) However cannabinoid residues can occur on the seed from contact with gland contents during harvest. Effect of Age and Leaf Length on Cannabinoid Content: Cannabinoid contents of seedlings of known age and primary leaf length showed the following trends in light-grown seedlings: cannabinoid concentration increased with increasing primary leaf length for any given age, and with increasing age for any given primary leaf length. Exceptions occurred at older stages and longer primary leaf lengths. For all leaf length categories, total cannabinoid concentration (CBG + THC + CBC) ceased to increase after seedlings reached 120-122 h and then either leveled off or decreased. page 472 Discussion page 473 literature cited page 474 literature cited
JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS Volume 51 No. 6 pp 1075 - 1079 - Nov - Dec - 1988 CANNABINOID DISPOSITION IN SEEDLINGS COMPARED TO ADULT PLANTS OF CANNABIS SATIVA by Ann F. Vogelmann: Jet Propulsion Labatory, California Institute of Techonology, Passadena, California 91109 Page 1075 Experimental: Seed Germination & Seedling Harvers Mature Plants and Seed Production Extraction High Performance Liquid Chromatography Page 1076 Decarboxylation of Samples RESULTS: page 1077 graph page 1078 Discussion Acknowledgments: This research was supported with funds from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (53-32U44- 234) DEA registration no P10043113 Literature Cited page 1079 literature cited: received January 27, 1988
The following piece needs to be blown up and studied. It is really to small to read. CONSTITUENTS OF CANNABIS SATIVA XXV ISOLATION OF TWO NEW DIHYDROSTILBENES FROM A PANAMANIAN VARIANT Journal of Natural Products Volume 47 No. 1 pp 445 - 453 May- June 1984 page 446 formula reaction: Scheme 1: Synthesis of 34, 4' dihydroxy - 5 methoxy- 3' -(3 methylbut - 2 enyl) - dihydrostilbene. page 447 Scheme 2 Synthesis of 3, 4' dihydroxy - 3' 5, 5' trimethoxy dihydrostilbene. Experimental: General Experimental Procedures Plant Material:A Panamanian variant of C. sativa grown in Mississippi was used in this study Herbarium specimens are deposited in the Herbarium, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Mississippi Extraction and Fractionation Fraction of Fraction F (Equivalent) Isolation of Cannabistibene1 Figure 1: Flow chart for the fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of a panamanian variant of Cannabis staiva Grown in Mississippi. page 449 Identivication of Cannabistilbene 1 Isolation of Cannabistibene II Identification of Cannabistilbene II Parpation of Cannabistibene (1) Preparation of Dimethyl Prop 2 YNLETHER of P. HYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE (8) Preparation of Dimethylallyether of P Hydroxybenzaldehyde Conversion of 9 to 10 page 450 Preparation of 4 Benzyloxy Methylbut 2 EnyL) Benzaldehyde Preparation of 3, 5 Dimethoxybenzyl Bromide Preparation of 3 Hydroxy 5 Methoxybenzyl Bromide Preparation of 3 Hydroxy 5 Methoxybenzltriphenyl Phosphanium Bromide Preparation of 4' Benzyloxy 3 Hydroxy 5 Methoxy 3' (3 Methylbut 2 Enyl) Stilbene page 451 Synthesis of 3, 4' Dixydroxy 3', 5, 5' Trimethoxy Dihydrostibene Preparation of Methyl 4 Benzyloxy 3,5 Dihydroxy Benzate Preparation of Methyl 4 Benzyloxy 3,5 Dimethoxy Benzoate Preparation of Compound 21 Preparation of Compound 22 Prepartion of 4 Benzyloxy 3 hydroxy 3', 5, 5' Trimethoxy Stilbene page 452 Conversion of 23 to compound 2 Acknowledgments
1989 ACTA UNIVERSITATIS PALACKIANAE OLOMUCENSIS - TOM. 122 - FACULTATIS MEDICAE Medical Faculty of the Palacky University Czechoslovakia THE AMOUNT OF MAIN CANNABINOID SUBSTANCES IN HEMP, CULTIVATED FOR INDUSTRIAL FIBRE PRODUCTION AND THEIR CHANGES IN THE COURSE OF ONE VEGETATION PERIOD by Hanus D Subova Received November 20, 1987 page 11 The results showed a low delta 9 thtrahydrocannabinol (content and cyclic peaking of cannabidiol (CBD) through the season. The Delta 9 THC content was usually low on the same day that the CBD was high and vice versa. page 12 Turner et al 3 found during the study of the amount of delta 9 THC and CBD cannabichromen CBC in Mexican variety of hemp that these substances varied in a cyclic patter, and they were a function of time of day and age of plants at sampling. Another study investigated and compared the changes in the amount of delta 9 THC and CBD in male and female plants of Lebanese (dioecious) and French (monoecious) hemp, both cultivated in France. They found that the variations of cannabinoid content of hemp could be attributed to many different factory, mainly genetic. The younger leaves contained a greater amount of delta 9 THCA than the older ones. The presented communication did not show a cyclic fluctuation in the amounts of the cannabinoids in the various types of Cannabis sativa: rather they showed that each type had a constant feature. CBC was constantly absent in any stage of the life cycle of the plants belonging to the intermediate and fiber types. In the fiber type, CBD was always predominant. page 13 Experimental part: Method Results page 14 Table: Content of principal cannabinoid substances in mb\g in petrolether extract (PeI) - samples before sexual differentiation processed fresh. Table 2: Content of principal cannabinoid substances in mg/g in petrolether extract samples before sexual differentiation processed dried page 15 Table 3: Content of principal cannabinoid substances in mg\g in petrolether extract - samples from male and female tops processed fresh Table 4: Content of principal cannabinoid substances in my/g in petrolether extract - samples from male and female tops processed dried. page 16 Table 5: The amount of main cannabinoid substances in mg/g of dried female tops of hemp in petrolether extract and in its isolated acidic fraction Table 6: Content of principal cannabinoid substances in mg/g in petrolether extract from fresh female tops page 17 Diagram 1: Dynamics of changes in the weight of the petrolether extract from fresh cannabis tops Diagram 2: Dynamics of changes in the weight of the petrolether extract from dried cannabis tops. page 18 Diagram 3: Dynamics of changes in the delta 9 THC content of petrolether extract in fresh samples from cannabis tops page 18 Diagram 4: Dynamics of changes in the delta 9 THC content of petrolether extract in dried samples from cannabis tops. page 19 Diagram 5: Dynamics of changes in the CBD content of petrolether extract in fresh samples from cannabis tops Diagram 6: Dynamics of changes in the CBD content of petrolether extract in dried samples from cannabis tops. Discussion: page 20 ...compared with the Diagram 1. The results of antibacterially effective CBD are represented in Diagram 5 and in Tables 1, 3, & 6 Still lower amount was determined only in 1975 (0.85mg g of delta 9 THC), but this was found in the fresh sample, where the amount of delta 9 THC is always lower than in the dried drug. Summary page 22 Ends in Czechoslovak words References page 23 references
BIOTECHNOLOGY Distinguishing characteristics of Biomechanical Pulp September 1990 Tappi Journal 249 by Irvin B. Sachs, Gary F. Leatham, Gary C. Myers, and Theodore H. Wegner Keywords: Biomechanical pulping, Biopulping, Biotechnology, Electron microscopy, Mechanical pulp, White-rot fungi Certain white-rot basidiomycetes are capable of extensively and selectively degrading lignin in wood: biomechanical pulping process suggest that pretreating aspen wood chips with white-rot fungi prior to refiner mechanical pulping can result in both substantial energy savings (6,7) and increased sheet strength properties (8,9). By requiring less pulping chemicals, biomechanical pulping has the potential to be less polluting than chemimechanical and chemical pulping processes (10). Little wood is lost in biopulping (6,9): about 96% is recovered. In chemical kraft pulping, about 50% wood is lost. Although biomechanical pulping seems promising, the mechanism of this process and the resulting papermaking properties of the pulp remain to be determined. The major findings were: 1) The degradative enzymes of the organism brought about overall softening and swelling of the wood cell walls as well as localized wall fragmentation. 2) The fungal enzymes that attacked the cell walls appeared to be secreted preferentially from the cell lumen (4, ll). Mechanical and chemical pulping are distinguished functionally on the basis of physical or chemical dispersion of fibers from the wood matrix (12). Mechanical pulping produces high yields and ruptures the fiber walls during fiberizing (13). In addition, mechanical fiberizing consumes large amounts of energy (14). Fiberizing is much less energy-intensive in chemical pulping because substances of the middle lamella are chemically remover (14). In our tests with biopulping, the enzymes of P. chroysosporium BKM-F-1767 did not separate fibers by dissolving lignin in the compound middle lamella but swelled and softened the fiber walls, often releasing ribbons of fibrils. When fiberized, the pulp appeared woolly, with loose (less compact) fibers. The object of our research was to determine the characteristics of pretreated biomechanical pulp. Using scanning electron microscopy, we compared BMP fiber and handsheets to aspen pulps and handsheets made by conventional pulping methods.
TAPPI JOURNAL November 1990 Norwood Plant Fibers Kenaf - a fast growing fiber source for papermaking by J.F. Kaldor, C. Karlgren, and H. Verwest Page 205 Kenaf, a fast growing annual crop with a high fiber yield per acre, has considerable potential as a versatile raw material for papermaking in tropical and temperate climates. ***Remember Kenaf looks just like Cannabis Cultivation, the height 6 meters on a five to seven month growth cycle, cordage, Asia, Central America, Australia, Thailand & China Chemical pulping*** page 206 Table 1. Tear versus tensil indices for kenaf bark and core pulp compared with softwood and hardwood pulps Table 2. Refining time\energy versus freeness for kenaf park and core pulps compared to softwood and hardwood pulps Table I. Basic properties of bark and core pulps, and some blends (all unbeaten) Table II Cost comparison of wood and kenaf in chemical pulping page 207 Kenaf pulp mill basic flow diagram. Papermaking characters Bark pulp Core Pulp Bark and Core Pulp Mixtures page 208: Mill configuration The chemical kenaf pulp potential Summary Literature Cited page 209
USDA: Kenaf Newsprint: REALIZING COMMERCIALIZATION OF A NEW CROP AFTER FOUR DECADES OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: A Report of the Kenaf Demonstration Project by Daniel E. Kugler, Special Projects & Program Systems, Crop Research Service USDA Pennsylvania State University October 17, 1988 Documents Collection page 2 Kenaf - A New Crop for Agriculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is an annual, nonwood fiber plant native to east-central Africa. Kenaf was introduced into the US in the 1940's as a substitute for jute to produce cordage. Research and development work for pulp, paper, and other fiber products began in 1960 and continues today with emphasis on commercialization for newsprint manufacture. Chemi-thermomechanical pulp made from whole stalk kenaf can be used to make high-quality newsprint..Kenaf Demonstration Project: The Kenaf Demonstration Project is a public - private partnership with the principal objective of gaining acceptance of kenaf as a fiber source for the manufacture of newsprint by existing and greenfield mills in the Southern US. The project was initiated in March 1986...The Joint Task Force consists of representatives from public and private institutions cooperating on the project. Members were included from USDA, Kenaf International, Combustion Engineering's Sprout-Bauer Division, and CIP, Inc. Rio Farms, Inc., & Beloit Corporation. page 3 1940's - 1978 - Public Leadership 1979 to 1985 - Private Leadership American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) & International Paper (IP) - IP's Pine Bluff, Arkansas, mill Figure 1) Inside a dense growth of kenaf - Rio Farms, Inc. : Monte Alto, Texas page 4 Kenaf Demonstration Project (KDP) Note that Fibure 2 shows 120 day old kenaf crop, looks exactly like hemp. page 5 USDA & Kenaf International Tells who are the players in selling this to the USDA page 6 Kenaf Demonstration Project - Phase I: Trials Harvest Pulping and Handling Papermaking page 7 Kenaf Demonstration Project - Phase II: Commercial Runs Figure 3: A Klaas sugarcane harvester used to harvest kenaf at Rio Farms. page 8 Fiber Handling Pulping Paper Manufacturing page 9 Figure 4, The initial washing stage of the kenaf fiber prior to primary refining. C-E Sprout- Bauer Research Laboratory, Springfield, Ohio. Figure 5, Marty Sferrazza, C-E Sprout-Bauer, holds wet-lap kenaf pulp. Wet-lap is fed into plastic bag- lined boxes for shipment. Pressroom Runs Page 10 Figure 6. At the Trois Rivieres mill, CIP, Inc., in Quebec, Canada, Peter Hodgson tests a roll of kenaf newsprint in front of the No. 6 machine. Kenaf Demonstration Project - Phase III: Agriculture Research and Development Needs Current Program Actions page 11 Figure 7 185 inch kenaf newsprint manufactured on the No. 6 machine going through a slitter. Trois Rivieres mill. "In 1988, the Agricultural Reserach Service initiated a recurring agricultural program for kenaf at field stations in Weslaco, Texas, and Lane, Oklahoma. ...Action plans will be developed for needs which accompany introduction of 35,000 acres of new crop over the next 3 years and a new $360 million newsprint industry in an agricultural area of south Texas. Action plans will also be prepared which look forward to promoting and preparing for the possibility of kenaf to become a million-acre crop over the next decade or two. page 12 Figure 8: The July 13, 1987, final edition of The Bakersfield Californian, sections of which were printed on kenaf newsprint, stacked to be bundled for home and newsstand delivery. Figure 9: Dr. Daniel E. Kugler, USDA Kenaf Program Manager, displays newspapers made from kenaf: The Journal Star (Peoria, IL) 1977, and The Bakersfield Californian 1987. page 13 References
NO MARIJUANA: PLENTY OF HEMP French farmers are doing well out of the growing market for hemp fibres. British farmers could face 14 years in jail if they followed suit. Two page article about Hemp farming in France. I believe I have this as a 1984 article (picture) "Now this hemp is the finest fibre known to mankind, my God, if you ever have a shirt made out of it, your grandchildren would never wear it out. You take Polish families. We used to see marijuana in the yards of Polish families. We'd go in and start to tear it up and the man came out with his shotgun, yelling: 'These are my clothes for next winter'". Harry J. Anslinger, former Commissioner, US Federal Bureau of Narcotics.
THIRD EXPANDED EDITION PSYCHEDELICS ENCYCLOPEDIA by Peter Stafford Foreword by Andrew Weil M.D., Introduction by Dan Joy Chapter 3: Marijuana & Hashish page 156 Picture pg 157 History The ancient Chinese wove clothes, shoes and rope from the fibers of this plant, and produced the first paper from it. The species probably appearing first in China is known scientifically as Cannabis sativa Linneaus, classified in 1753 by Linneaus, the father of modern botanical identification. The earliest reference to mind-altering effects from Cannabis appears in the Atharva-Veda of the second millennium B.C., when it was already regarded as one of the five sacred plants of India. pg 158 picture of "Plants of the Gods": Cannabis sativa L, Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis (rare Siberian species) page 159 The Spread to Europe and Africa: Of the three species of Cannabis, the sativa type was the first to be spread widely around the globe, probably because of its having strong fibers and lots of edible seeds. The earliest known pharmacy book, published in China in the third millennium B.C., recommends hemp for everything from rheumatism to constipation - even absent-mindedness. page 160-161 Archeological remains show that hemp was growing at Old Buckenham Mere in England by 400 A.D. From this point on, there was a tremendous spread of its cultivation in the British Isles. The plant was valued then for its fibers (made into cloth) and its seeds (which, as earlier in China, were used for food and oil.) page 162, 163, 164...Whether or not Cannabis was growing in the Americas already, the Spanish seem to have taken their own to Chile in 1545 and then to Peru in 1554>>>Nahuas was a name for marijuana in the New World tribes before the Spaniards arrived. In 1606 the British took it to Canada for maritime purposes. In 1611 they brought it to Virginia, in 1632 the Pilgrims to New England During the War of Independence, as Kentucky and Ohio were being opened up for settlement, vast tracts in both these states were set aside for hemp planting to provide the fiber with which to make clothes, rope, flags, altar cloths, food bags, and fine paper. page 165 With the end of the Civil War...The development of cheap wood...hemp as a source of paper, although it was still used in the manufacture of cigarette papers, money, and Bibles page 166 Prohibitions against nonmedical usage had been enacted in California 1915, Texas 1919, Louisiana 1924, New York 1927 by 1937 46 of the 48 states had banned marijuana pg 167 In August 1937, FDR, who had come into office on a platform of repealing Prohibition, signed the Marijuana Tax Act. The new penalties for its use or distribution were five to twenty years for a first offense, ten to forty for a second. pg 168 After retiring from the Narcotics Bureau, the indefatigable Anslinger went on to head the American delegation to the UN concerned with drug use. by 1961 he managed tin this capacity to get sixty nations to sign a "Uniform Drug Convention," which pledged to end Cannabis use within twenty five years. 169 Anslinger add California 170 Anti marijuana literature produced during the 1940's Governmental Investigations and Other Reports Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission by the English Parliament 1893 3,281 pages, seven volumes, testimony form 1,200 "doctors, coolies, yogis, fakirs, heads of lunatic asylums, bhang peasants, tax gatherers, smugglers, army officers, hemp dealers, ganja palace operators and the clergy" On the whole, if moderation and excess in the use of drugs are distinguished, which is a thing that the witnesses examined have, as just remarked, found it very hard to do, the weight of evidence is that the moderate use of hemp drugs is not injurious...Popular prejudice has over and over again caused cases of insanity to be ascribed to ganja which have no connection whatever with it; and then statistics based on this premise are quoted as confirming or establishing the prejudice itself....Absolute prohibition is, in the opinion of the Commission, entirely out of the question...There is no evidence of any weight regarding mental and moral injuries from the moderate use of these drugs...Large numbers of practitioners of long experience have seen no evidence of any connection between the moderate use of hemp drugs and disease...Moderation does not lead to excess in hemp any more than it does in alcohol. Regular, moderate use of ganja or bhang produces the same effects as moderate and regular doses of whiskey. Excess is confined to the idle... pg 171 Panama Canal - Army's investigative body , LaGuardia Commission 1943, use of marijuana in New York City, is comparatively innocuous, that it's not addictive, etc. More recent findings that Cannabis is not harmful appear in the English Wootton Report of 1968, the Canadian Le Dain Report of 1970 and the much-publicized report of the US President's Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, the Shafer Report of 1972. Similar findings have come from South Africa, Australia and from a New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Chronic Cannabis Use in Manhattan in 1976. The latest such commission, a panel from the National Academy of Sciences, in 1982 urged removal of penalties for Cannabis use, after finding "no conclusive evidence that marijuana causes permanent, long-term health damage in humans, is addictive, leads to use of 'harder drugs,' affects the brain structure or causes birth defects." In 1951, the UN Bulletin of Narcotic Drugs released results of a survey indicating that there were then approximately 200 million Cannabis users in the world. in 1982 a UN report increased the worldwide estimate of Cannabis users to more than 500 million page 172 picture of poet Allen Ginsberg who first smoked pit in 1948 - February 1966 page 173 Moves toward Decriminalization all the states attempts to correct this great misjustice page 174 Ford's chief advisor on drugs, Robert DuPont, stated that marijuana was less harmful than alcohol or tobacco and urged decriminalization of limited home production. Sort article "Scientists Find Nothing Really Harmful About Pot. page 175 Smuggling and Cash Crops: US Customs: 1969 57,164 lbs or 30 tons, June 1975 253.3 tons July 1975 86 tons, 1981 confiscation amounted to 74,000 pounds of hashish and about 1,500 tons of marijuana. continues to tell about Jamaica, Mexican marijuana & deadly herbicide paraquat page 176 How the domestic market began Other Developments page 177 seed catalog: Effective February 1981 page 178
By 1980 the domestic pot industry had grown to at least $8 billion in volume annually, with total US consumption conservatively estimated at about thirty tons annually. Chart shows production of . pot in Kansas is worth $100 - $200 million annually page 179 Botany: Uniqueness: Cannabis species are exceptional, unique from many viewpoints in biology, chemistry and pharmacology. They are among the oddest manifestations in the plant kingdom, something perhaps tossed off by the Creator as a wild afterthought on the seventh day. Cannabis was originally classified as a member of the nettle family (urticaceae) and then to the mulberry family (Moraceae). It is now considered most closely related to the hop plant and is thus a cousin to the fig tree! Classification is difficult because structurally it belongs in one place, while its sexual characteristics suggest it should be elsewhere. Over the last century or so, there has arisen a plethora of technical names for it variants: kif, vulgaris, pedemontana, chinensis, erratica, foetens, lupulus, mexicana, macrosoerma, americana, gigantea, excelsa, compressa, sinensis, etc., Picture: Robert Connell Clarke's illustration of the development of the resin producing glandular plant hair with a stalk (the capitate-stalked trichome): oage 206 Dr. West conceded that the continuing controversy over the question of whether pot is, technically, an "aphrodisiac" was irrelevant to most users. In real life and among real people, the fact is, the word is, the belief is the exception is, and the result is, that marijuana enhances sexual activity, he said. page 207 Ken Kesey, who feels reluctant to recommend any other mental drugs because they have so often been impure, provides the ultimate pot commercial: But good old grass I can recommend. To be just without being mad...to be peaceful without being stupid, to be interested without being compulsive, to be happy without being hysterical...smoke grass.
Inspiration: The core of the matter is that most users of Cannabis find it inspiring in many ways. They claim not only that it can heighten sexual feelings but that it inspires religious feelings, increases creativity, helps them solve problems, helps to get them in touch with themselves and expands the scope of their minds. Rats given a diet of THC have been shown to be capable of learning how to run mazes faster than when they're left unstoned (see E.A. Carlini and C. Kramer, "Effects of Cannabis Sativa (Marihuana) on Maze Performance of the Rat," Psychopharmacologia, 1965, p. 175.) When people talk about marijuana adding a third dimension to pictures or new depths to colors or creating "synethesia" (when music can, say, become visual), they are discussing changes in normal external perception. Distortions visual), they are discussing changes in normal external perception. Distortions in the sense of time and space are fascinating. The effects that come under headings of "insight" or "inspiration" are also common occurrences with marijuana use and these effects may prove beneficial to society at large. To drive this point home, read one more listing from the Tart materials, not characteristic or rare experiences this time but common experience:
Skip intermediate steps in problem solving Intuitive, empathic understanding of people Insights into others Sexual love a union of souls as well as bodies Thoughts more intuitive Inhibitions lowered Ideas more original Mind feels more efficient in problem solving Learn a lot about what makes people tick At one with the world Say more profound, appropriate things Events, actions become archetypal Converse intelligently even though things forgotten
page 401- 404 Notes on Purity Tests and Precursors about on sight drug tests: Hewlett-Packard gas liquid chromatographic unit, a sophisticated analytical instrument for drug testing. page 405 Thoughts on Increasing Intelligence talks about the brain and highs page 407 Other Literature page 408 Other Literature page 409 Index
Cytology & genetics Volume 22, No. 2 Allerton Press ISSN 0095 4527 QH573/C92: INHERITANCE AND PRACTICAL USE OF AN INTERSEXUQAL FORM OF HEMP MALE STERILITY. N.D. Migal and E.I. Borodian Tstitologiya i Genetika, Page 40-45, 1988 UDC 633.522:575.24:577.8
THE SOVIET JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Russian Original Volume 17, No. 4, July - August, 1986 English translation May, 1987 QH491\S66 Consultants Bureau, New York. page 262 Flower Teratology in Intersexual Hemp Plants 263 Materials & Methods Results and Discussion page 264 Teratological changes of male flowers in intersexual plants of monecious and dioecious hemp
ADVANCES IN NEW CROPS Proceedings of the First National Symposium NEW CROPS: Research, Development, Economics Indianapolis, Indiana October 23 - 26, 1988 Edited by Jules Janick & James E. Simon Purdue University Timber Press Portland, Oregon 1990 pg. 289 Non-wood Fiber Crops: Commercialization of Kenaf for Newsprint Introduction: Non-wood fiber crops can be used to manufacture many different products. What are some of these crops and what are they used for? Dempsey uses three broad product application categories: fine textile fiber crops, packaging fiber crops, and soft cordage fiber crops. (Table 1) Fine textile crops (flax, hemp, ramie) have fine, soft strong bast fibers that can be woven and used for fine apparel fabrics. Packaging crops (jute, kenaf, roselle) have coarse, soft strong bast fibers that can be spun or woven and made into sacks, bags, carpet backing, webbing, and coarse twine. Soft cordage crops (sunn hemp) have coarse and strong bast fiber used for twines, cordage, and to some extent paper....On potential use for manufacturing pulp and paper products, ...some crops/fibers in this sugar cane bagasse, wheat and rice straws, bamboo, cotton stalks, reed, amur grass, and kenaf. For example, consider the Peoples Republic of China, the Cradle of papermaking. In 104 AD, the first paper was made from a mixture of bark, flax, and old fishing nets. page 290 commercial development Kenaf 1977: Major gaps in agriculture which needed to be bridged included: 1) commercial capability for seed and fiber production; 2) commercial-scale seed supply of several cultivars, and 3) commercial fiber-handling (harvest, transport, storage) capability. While KI and a private, non-profit research farm in Texas (Rio Farms Inc.) worked to resolve seed and fiber production agronomics and economics and establish a large seed supply, newsprint product development lay idle for nearly five years page 291 H. Willett and Associates, Jeanerette, Louisiana & Canadian Pacific Forest Products, a kenaf harvester for the system was recently completed The separated fibers will be moved into testing and verification of several products other than newsprint. These products include poultry litter, automobile dashboards, carpet padding, corrugated medium, and composting material. I expect that one or more of these products will also see businesses established in 1989 page 292 References ECONOMICS OF KENAF PRODUCTION IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS by Andrew W. Scott, Jr., and Charles S. Taylor newsprint industry with its annual world production near the 30 million tonnes level (Taylor et al. 1982). United States is approximately 5 million tonnes consumer annually K-Rio is the contracting company for the Rio Grande Valley Who owns Kenaf International? page 293 Table 1: Budget estimates for irrigated kenaf production 2 (assume an average yield of 16.8 tones/ha).******** page 294 Table 2. Budget estimates for non-irrigated kenaf production 2(assume an average yield of 13.5 tonnes/ha. Table 3: Effect of varying irrigated kenaf yields on projected gross and net returns.2 page 295 Table 4: Effect of varying non-irrigated kenaf yields on projected gross of net returns Table 5: Effect of verying irrigated white corn prices on projected gross and net returns Tabale 6: Effect of varying irrigated grain sorghum prices on projected gross and net returns Table 7: Effect of varying irrigated upland cotton prices on projected gross and net returns Yields of these traditional crops (white corn, grain sorghum, upland cotton) are more vulnerable to weather, disease, and insects. page 296 Table 8: Differences between returns for kenaf and similar returns for traditional irrigated valley row crops. (yields varied for kenaf; prices varied for other crops). Table 9: Summary comparisons of mean budget projections for kenaf and established valley crops CONCLUSIONS: ...the positive differences shown above for the first and second net returns indicate that farmers should keep more dollars per hectacre by growing kenaf than they... Alternatively, the mean expectations for each crop under irrigated conditions (i.e., kenaf yield of 16.8 tonnes/ha, white corn @ $3.50/bu, milo @ $4.50/cwt, and upland cotton @ $0.60/lb) can be calculated as shown in Table 9. These budget estimates help to provide a means of comparing potential returns from kenaf against their expected returns from established crops. Other considerations that must also be factored into the farmer's decision making include the new crop's probable impact on crop rotations, government programs, crop insurance requirements of agricultural lenders, and returns to landowners. All things considered, the introduction of a new crop into US agriculture is neither simple, quick, or risk free. Rather it requires thoughtful and courageous decision makers throughout the evolving production- marketing-consumption system to make reality out of visions. References THE RISE AND FALL OF KENAF AS A FIBER CROP IN NORTH CAROLINA by William T. Fike usually flower the first of November. These flowers rarely produce seed under our environmental conditions. Greater yields of fiber per unit area can be obtained from kenaf than from our southern pine forests (Wolff 1964) PAGE 298 initial seed increase fields were planted in Weslaco, Texas, but an early freeze destroyed the crop. Fertilization Date of Planting and Soil Preparation Seeding Herbicides Harvesting page 299 Commercial Production of Kenaf in North Carolina ***there is a contract that initiated the program in North Carolina Department of Agriculture: Kenaf - A New Crop References
Lincoln Star September 15, 90 article by John Hardin, composer, artist and freelance writer summarization of hemp in Nebraska (mis- statement: Nebraska did not participate in the war effort)
HEMP AS A CROP FOR MISSOURI FARMERS: Markets, Economics, Cultivation, Law: Report to Agriculture Task Force Missouri House of Representatives Summer 1991: Prepared by Richard Lawrence Miller page Supplement January 1992 "Dr. Gerald Touzinsky, expert in non-wood fibers and former chairman of the Nonwood Plant Fibers Committee of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) says hemp pulp is currently desired for cigarette paper, for currency and other security papers, and for light weight printing grades used in Bibles and other applications requiring strong, thin sheets. Jim Young, Technical Editor of Pulp & Paper, the main journal of the US paper industry, reiterates that cigarette papers are a proven market for hemp. Intro pg 2 Dr. Touzinsky feels that demand might exist for hemp in manufacture of particle board and in poultry bedding. Mr. Atchins concurs that particle board, panelboard, and medium density fiber board, panelboard, and medium density fiber board would be possible markets for hurds. Robert Reeves, president of the Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils in Washington, DC, reports that hemp seed could be crushed and refined in much the same way that canola and linseed are processed. Cottage Industry page 23 has graph of Bushels of Hemp Seed Imported into the United States from 1931 to 1965 page 42 There is nothing contradictory about encouraging hemp while discouraging marijuana. Although they come from the cannabis plant, they are different products. While the federal registration system operated, agriculture agencies destroyed unregistered cannabis acreage. This policy is documented by government records: graph of Year - Registered Growers - Legal Cannabis Harvested by acres - Illegal Cannabis Destroyed by acres from 1938 to 1944 report is 55 pages long, very good
THE CROP CANNABIS GERMPLASM COLLECTION Euphytica 62: 201- 211, 1992 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Neitherlands: Received June 26, 1992; accepted 19 July 1992 Key words: Cannabis, cultivars, germplasm collection, hemp, orgin Summary: A collection of more than a 150 Cannabis accessoions is being established as a source for evaluation and breeding experiments. Origin of the accessorions and maintenance of the collection are described. Mentions previous Netherland reports Jonge, 1944; Friederich, 1960: To investigate the feasibility of hemp (Cannabis sativa L) as a raw material for paper pulp production page 203 talks of seed storage page 205 Reports: Hungarian, Rumanian, Polish, USSR, Central Russian, page 208 graph page 209 Reports: Southern Russian, Drug cultivars: Afghanistan, Mexico, Colombia
WYOMING STATUTES 1977 Substances (other than food) Marihuana means all parts of the plant of the genus Cannabis, whether growing or not; the seed thereof;
Numbered page 46 dated October 17, 1986 All-Union Research Institute of Fiber Crops, Glukhov, Sumy Region