The Protectors: Harry J. Anslinger, and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics: 1930 - 1962: John C. McWilliams: Newark: University of Delaware Press: London & Toronto: Associated University Presses: Page 149 - 217: Tentacles: 1943 - 1965:pg 156:Interpol originated 1914, US joined 1958. Obviously a power struggle pages 149 - 158 tell how Anslinger became powerful all over the world waging war on drugs. page 158 "Prior to the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, which demonstrated America's lack of preparedness, Donovan convinced the president that a new intelligence organization should be created. With the approval of: Robert H. Jackson, Attorney General Cordell Hull, Secretary of State Henry Stimson, Secretary of War, the Office of the Coordinator of Information (COI) was established in June of 1941. However, by June 1942, it was clear that the COI was not operating at the efficiency level desired and its activities were divided and re-assigned. All of the overt operations were placed in a new Office of War Information (OWI) while intelligence and covert maneuvers were transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). In the crisis of war, President Roosevelt created the nation's first spy agency. Immediately after the war, President Truman abolished the OSS in response to pressure from military intelligence services and J. Edgar Hoover, who insisted that the existence of such an agency in peace time would be a costly duplication of functions already performed. Secretary Morgenthau was also "skeptical as to the necessity or propriety of establishing such an agency" and felt that the same purpose could be achieved by a better liaison between departments. But Truman also recognized the need for a permanent organization to coordinate and analyze available intelligence and channel it to the appropriate government agencies. His "coordination of information" scheme eventually led to the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1947, which was part of the National Security Act that also created the National Security Council, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the United States Air Force. The intelligence agency General Donovan envisioned became a reality, though he could never have anticipated the controversy it would later provoke. pages 162 begin telling the story of Charles Siragusa & George White who in cooperation with the US government established houses where they distributed LSD as means of mind control experiments George White was a very famous person in CIA, OSS, ...page 165 George White's diary confirmed that he and Anslinger conducted experiments with narcotics on ways to control human behavior that would break down the psychological defenses of enemy agents when subjected to questioning by American intelligency officers....page 167 The worst tragedy in the CIA's experiments did not involve a victim but one of the CIA's own chemists, Dr. Franklin Olson, on a November night in 1953. A glass of liquor was spiked with about seventy micrograms of LSD The experiment proved fatal. During the next several days he was abnormally suspicious of everyone and extremely despondent. The day after Thanksgiving, Dr. Olson jumped to his death from a tenth-story window at the Statler Hotel in New York..[this was exposed only in 1975 to the family, CIA denied but paid $750,000 in compensation to family in 1976] MK-ULTRA project. page 168: Senator Edward M. Kennedy, September 20, 1977 "Kennedy also found it inconceivable that the CIA, in a cooperative effort with the FBN, the National Institute of Health, and the Internal Revenue Service, secretly supported research on the control of human behavior at eighty institutions, including forty-four universities, hospitals, prisons, and pharmaceutical companies. page 169: Rhodes testified that under the order of Morgan Hall, George White's undercover alias, he and Goldman were given a reasonable supply of money" and during the following week were told "to go around to a number of bard, and drink and meet people." The purpose of their bar-hopping was to establish trusting relationships with people so as not to arouse suspicion when the agents invited them to an 'MK-ULTRA party' at White's safe house where the unwitting victims would be given LSD...[originally used aerosol canister to deliver LSD] three grown men flew from the east coast to the west coast to spend a week in the bars out there, to gather people for a party ...page 170...safe house operatives were limited only be their imaginations. To test Anslinger's theory on the nature of personality, they attended the First National Convention of Lesbians...launching device for the power CS ...swizzle stick coated with...sneezing powder that induced violent sneezing...hypodermic needle to inject drugs through the cork in wine bottles...to debilitate a person without causing him physical harm, they devised a drug which brought on diarrhea, [they let Dr. Olson kill himself, because they were afraid he would talk]...Senator Richard S. Schweiker of Pennsylvania asked Dr. Robert Lashbrook, a CIA chemist who was in the company of Dr. Olson when he committed suicide, to discuss the CIA projects relating to motivational studies of defectors and training techniques. ...the connection between MK-ULTRA and twenty-three subprojects he believed were related to "Executive action," the CIA's term for political assassination. Siragus CIA 1959: Anslinger introduced him to Dr. Roy Treichler, an agency employee who worked out of the New York safe house. Siragusa open safe house in Chicago.. also was in charge of the third safe house set up in 1961 page 172: The roles of Siragusa & Belk may not have been determined precisely but there was no doubt about George White, according to CIA pharmacologist Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Testifying under subpoena, Dr. Gottlieb discussed the existence of the UK- ULTRA project from 1952 to 1965 as an "arrangement set up with the Bureau of Narcotics.: The idea of a joint project came to him while perusing OSS research files that described an experiment into the behavior-altering possibilities of tetrohycannabinol. Aiding him in the partnership was a contact officer of the bureau (White) who had participated firsthand in the OSS investigations. Together the contact and the chemist covertly administered chemical substances to unwitting people. Gottlieb also said that the project was actively supported by the Bureau of Narcotics because of its interest in determining whether chemical materials could be used to elicit or validate information from drug informants. During the thirteen years of MK- ULTRA drug testing from 1952 to 1965, the CIA made in excess of two hundred payments totaling more than $20,000 for the San Francisco safe house alone. Checks written by Morgan Hall in $50 or $100 amounts, labeled "STORMY", White's code name for LSD. Thirty-two STORMY checks collected by the subcommittee indicated at least that many attempted drug administrations. Checks issued by Morgan Hall with no connotation were used, to finance photographic equipment and the payments to prostitutes. [The CIA used these drugs overseas] In collaborating with the CIA, in MK- ULTRA which cost American taxpayers an estimated $10 million - ...Mr. Anslinger was knowledgeable of the safe houses that we set up and why" and that the Commissioner of Narcotics was known to have condoned and encouraged bureau agents to take an active role in the CIA's drug experiments. page 174 Anslinger sent Siragusa to Cuba in 1959 just after Castro had overthrown Fulgencio Batista page 188: In this study of deviancy titled "outsiders", sociologists Howard S. Becker argued that Anslinger adhered to what the author called his model of "moral entrepreneur" that theorized that the Marijuana Tax Act was passed in 1937, not because there was a need or demand for it, but because Anslinger wanted it to justify the bureau's existence...he established himself as the "narcotics czar"...the smaller the number of personnel, the easier it was to exert control, especially when considering how extensively the bureau was involved in outside intelligence activities...never had a budget greater than $4,000,000. and never employed more than 400 people.